Common Questions About Circuit Switching in Computer Networks

1. What is the process of a computer receiving information from a server on the internet?

Every computer on the internet uses OSI 7 layer model to communicate with each other or to share data with each other. OSI 7 layer model has1. Application layer2. Presentation layer3. Session layer4. Transport layer5. Network layer6. Data link layer7. Physical layerKeep in mind if you are sending data to the server or any system then the model will work from top to bottom and if you're receiving the data from server or any system then the model will work from bottom to top.Also keep in mind that a typical frame on internet has1. Destination MAC address2. Source Mac address3. Destination IP address4. Source IP address5. Destination port6. Source port7. Sequence no.

8. The information (data)9. CRC or FCS ( cyclic redundancy check or frame check sequence)Since the server is recieving data so the model will work from bottom to top so-At physical layer-The frame containing your data will arrive in binary format and will be encrypted.At data link layer-The server will check if the destination Mac address matches to itself or Not if not the server will destroy the frame. If yes then the server will check if the frame recieved if in good condition(CRC) or not if not then again it is gonna destroy it. If everything is fine the server will keep the source Mac address in memory for response purpose.At network Layer-The server will check if the destination IP address matches it itself or not if not then again it is gonna destroy the frame. If yes it will keep the source IP address in memory for response purpose.

At transport layer-The server will assemble the data on the basics of sequence no.At session later-The server will end the session with the client pc after the data is assembled.At presentation layer-The data will be decrypted and will be converted in to the format that the application on server can read it.

At application layer-The server will look at the destination port and the data will be given to the application assign to that port. Also it will keep the source port in memory for response perpose.After this the server with respond so the model will be applied from top to bottom everything will be same the only thing gonna change is destination Mac address and ip address and source Mac and ip address and port no. Now the destination Mac and ip address are gonna be source IP and Mac addresses and the source IP and Mac address will be the destination IP and Mac addresses. Also the source port will become the destination port and destination port will become sources port.


2. I am 23, and I still don't know what to do in life. I'm a well paid software engineer, but I don't like coding. I try to avoid as much work as I can because I can't/don't want to code. I am aimless and don't have any passion. What do I do?

Hi, it is surprising that you have got this Catch-22 situation little early and it is very good sign that you have identified it precisely as per your statement. Since need is to less amount coding-i.e direct coding using a typical programming language, explore few questions given belowWhether you need to continue in IT Industry or notIf Yes, what are the alternatives in IT IndustryIf Not, what are the alternatives in Non-IT IndustryIf Yes, what are the alternatives in IT IndustrySoftware Testing - the requirements is precise understanding of Testing, precise understanding of Business Requirements and perception of how an User will use the software . To get understanding of Testing, best software testing books are Software Testing - Craftsman approach by Jorgen, Software Testing by Burnstein and Software Testing by Glenford Myers search internet and you will get best information - Next, is get Software Testing Certification from ISTQB-Indian Testing Board and QAI. Entry level is Software Tester, Sr Tester, Test Lead, Test Manager, Test ConsultantBusiness Rules and Business Analysis / Requirements Engineering - the requirement here is get very good understanding of common Business namely Banking, Insurance, Retail, Healthcare and get an excellent understanding of identification of Business Requirements, Business Analsysis and translate the understanding into Software Requirements Document or into a Proposal Solution - In this regard, please search Internet - Business Rules Extraction, Business Analysis and Requirements Engineering . An added advantage here is to get an MBA through Regular study or Certificate Program conducted by IIM and IIT - this will be help in this regardQA Process Analysis - the requirement includes Testing and in addition, Quality Process understanding . This includes an excellent understanding of various Process models, CMM, ISO, TMM. In this, the need is to identify common function and designate it as Process, define entry and exit criteria, define procedures, define measurement etc. An understanding of Common Business namely Banking, Insurance etcData Analysis - using Excel and few other easy to use programming languagesWeb Design, Online Media Publications and using Technology to address common business processProject Management - the requirements is to become a Lead and acquire experience of leading a team with specific deliverables . Best certification is PMI-CAPM and on completion of it , PMP, PgMP, Risk ManagementIf Not, what are the alternatives in Non-IT industryPursuing your own interests in area of EducationManagement Career - get a MBAIndian Civil Services Exam conducted once in year and vacancies in Govt is 900 every year - this is a 3-part exam Exam-1 Preliminary,Exam-2 Mains and Exam-3 Interview.

Candidates who clear Exam-I are allowed to appear for Exam-2. Candidates who clear Exam-2 are allowed for Exam-3. Final order of merit determines selection to Civil Services .

It is a tough exam and requires a dedicated preparation leading to IFS, IAS, IPS, Central Group-1 and Group-2 ServicesIndian Engineering Services ExamGATE exam to secure employment in Public Sector CompaniesCA-Chartered Accountancy, ICWA-Cost and Work Accountancy and ACS-Company SecretaryGet a Franchise and start a businessGMAT, GRE and TOEFL for Higher Studies in USStart your own Business in Retail, Education, Medical or Catering etcHope this is useful yet lengthy response and hope it helps to come out of Catch-22 situation Thank you Arul Varman


3. What are the 5 books that have influenced you the most?

The five most influential books in my life so far.The Power of Subconscious Mind, Joesph Murphy - I never thought our mind is capable of such ESP powers until I held this book in my hand. I was skeptical when I began reading this book. But as I started to turn page after page, and followed the instructions time and again. I witnessed some miraculous experiences happening to me. I was initially petrified and later it took to me to amaze! I'd bet everyone to read this for once at least in their lifetime. The effect is evident and prominent when you are really seeking and longing for something.The Fountain Head - Ayn Rand. Oh gosh! This book took me completely by surprise. Ayn Rand's writings and vision had taken my entire life by a u-turn with this book. All the beliefs and experiences I had gathered thus far have had redefined after this book. This most critically acclaimed and abashed book. There are doers and nay-sayers to the content of this book. But it depends on the state of the individual. " World's smallest minority is an Individual, " it says. It Introduces you to reasoning.Think And Grow Rich - Napolean Hill. It is said, that there's no other book in the history of mankind that had made as many riches as this book accounts for. But personally I haven't experimented nor experienced much. Maybe I am not a person longing for riches. But hey! I said that but this book isn't just about riches, it is comprehensively about any burning desire you have got to work on. The tenets shared in this book somewhere strike similarities with the first book I mentioned above.The Five AM Club - Robin Sharma. Totally new approach to design a better routine of your life. If you have read the book The Miracle Morning, I don't think you'll find great information to savor from 5 AM Club book.

The 7 Habits of highly effective people - Stephen R Covey. Boy! This book is definitely a must-read. It changes how your reasoning mind perceives things. There are books of similar genre that work on our psyched up emotions to help you achieve results and solve problems real quick. But this book relies on a set of practical principles for effective living. It encourages you to plan for a better living teaching efficient and time tested principles one after the other in order to achieve greater results in the long term, and not give you an instant quick fix.

These were the books that touched different chords of my life to shape me up into a better human being. I'd definitely want to add a few more to the list but since the question was about the top 5 so I take a pause here.I hope it helps - VK!Books Corner

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