Deco 90C Watt-Controlled Drivers Outperform the Competition

Most LED Drivers are only capable of operating in mild environments, rated for operation up to 75° or 80° Celsius (167°F or 176°F). Temperatures inside a lighting fixture are often higher than this.Small fixture compartments and poor air circulation can generate extreme heat, often coming close to temperatures that boil water.

The heat results in damage to the driver's battery-like electrolytic capacitors. The electrolyte, which is typically a gel, evaporates over the life of the capacitor's components. Higher operating temperatures speed up this evaporation, shortening the life of the capacitor and leading to premature driver failure.

Deco Lighting has solved the dilemma of premature power supply failure by utilizing watt-controlled drivers designed to stand up to extreme heat. Unlike other LED drivers, Deco LED watt-controlled drivers are rated for operation up to 90° Celsius (194 °F). Our process focuses on making the driver operate cooler and longer than the competition.

How we do it:Our driver components are positioned on the circuit board in a manner that prevents the build-up of heat.Our circuit boards are arranged in a way that allows our driver components to touch the metal housing so the driver components can be used as a heat sink.We insulate key heat-sensitive components inside the driver.

Deco Lighting ensures quality in every component that comprises their LED lighting fixtures, from high-quality Nichia LEDs to finely-engineered heat transfer castings to state-of-the-art drivers. There's a reason Deco Lighting offers a ten-year, one hundred thousand hour warranty, which includes labor. Deco's warranty backs up the confidence they have in their products.

For more information about our LED drivers or other products please visit or contact us at (800) 613-DECO with any questions.Originally published at on December 19, 2014


Why is it important that we have an assault rifle?

Ok, hopefully by now you've read the other answers and realize that what you're talking about isn't actually an assault rifle. That's fine, the media intentionally misleads people who don't know any better in order to further the anti gun agenda.I'm assuming you mean rifles like the AR15, so I'll proceed with that.

Why do we need them? We don't.

We don't need much of the things we have today. 60″ LED TV? Nope. $850 phones? Nope. $80k Lexus to drive? Nope. There are other options that can accomplish the same thing for the most part. Freedom gives us the opportunity to choose.

That being said, an AR 15 is a wonderful choice for home defense in many situations. Shotguns or pistols are ok but quite often, an AR15 is better. It's easier to aim, lower recoil so easier to shoot for smaller and less experienced people, it's more accurate and there is less risk of overpenetration which means lower risk to other people in the building.

So you see, times have changed and we now have a better option to defend ourselves than a shotgun or pistol. It's called an AR15, and our freedom as Americans gives us the ability to choose that over an inferior method

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Maxim Introduces Offline LED Driver Max16841
Maxim Introduces Offline LED Driver Max16841
key word:LED driver, max16841, Maxim, offlineMaxim Integrated Products, Inc    (NASDAQ: mxim) launched the offline LED driver max16841, which adopts leading edge (three terminal bidirectional thyristor) and trailing edge (transistor) dimmers to realize flicker free dimming from maximum light intensity to zero light intensity. Fixed frequency control optimizes the efficiency of working in low-voltage and high-voltage AC power grids. Max16841 adopts 90vac to 265vac input range, which is a general solution for dimmers in Japan, China, the United States and Europe. The driver allows direct replacement of incandescent and halogen lamps, thus avoiding compatibility problems when pre installing dimmers. Max16841 can work without electrolytic capacitor, thus prolonging the service life of LED lamp. Eliminating these capacitors can also save space and cost. The LED driver is very suitable for the upgrading of dimmable LED lamps and general LED lamps in industrial, commercial and residential lighting applications.Dimming problems in upgrading applicationsThe dimmer increases or decreases the transmitted light intensity by increasing or decreasing the power supply of the lamp. Now, the two most common voltage regulation methods are leading edge (three terminal bidirectional thyristor) and trailing edge (transistor) dimmers. Both types of dimmers adjust the power of the lamp by cutting off part of the AC waveform. As the name suggests, the leading edge dimmer cuts the leading edge after the waveform crosses zero, and the trailing edge dimmer cuts the part before the waveform crosses zero. The leading edge dimmer is suitable for resistive or inductive loads, and the trailing edge dimmer is suitable for resistive or capacitive loads.In order to directly upgrade the traditional lighting, LED lamps must be compatible with front and rear edge dimmers at the same time. These dimmer designs are usually suitable for traditional halogen and incandescent resistive loads. However, the LED driver is completely nonlinear and is not suitable for the pure resistive load of the dimmer. Therefore, when the LED is connected to an existing electrical facility with a dimmer, the LED usually flashes and often darkens, and in some cases it does not even light at all.Max16841 uses patented technology to control the input current of the lighting lamp to solve this problem. By actively correcting the input current, the driver ensures no flicker and works in most electronic transformers and dimmers. Now, LED lamp designers can design replacement products that directly replace halogen lamps and incandescent lamps with adjustable light intensity to zero.Flexible design optimizes efficiency under any operating conditionsMax16841 can be designed in isolated (flyback) and non isolated (step-down) configurations, suitable for both high-voltage AC power grid (220VAC to 230VAC) and low-voltage AC power grid (100vac to 120VAC). The fixed frequency control architecture selects the optimal conduction mode (DCM or CCM) according to the input voltage, so as to improve the efficiency. Since the regulator itself can ensure sufficient holding current when switching, max16841 current control technology does not need a shunt to maintain the dimmer current, so as to improve the dimming efficiency.Universal input expands the application field, shortens the design time and reduces the costThe max16841 can be configured as a universal input (90vac to 265vac) for flicker free dimming in newer applications worldwide. The max16841 also reduces inventory and design costs because it can meet global voltage requirements without a separate LED driver.Prolong lamp life and save spaceMax16841 can be designed not to use electrolytic capacitors. Electrolytic capacitor is usually the most fault prone component of driver circuit, so it prolongs the service life of LED lamp. If electrolytic capacitors are used in existing designs, the max16841 can continue to maintain normal lighting even when these capacitors fail.Eliminating the electrolytic capacitor can also reduce the cost of the driver and reduce the volume, which is suitable for small volume applications.   More detailsMax16841 operates in the temperature range of - 40 ° C to 125 ° C. 8-pin, SOIC package.2011-10-17 13:07:27 uploadDownload attachment (10.68 KB)
Design of LED Driver Circuit Based on a High Efficiency
Design of LED Driver Circuit Based on a High Efficiency
1、 Design features1. The accurate primary side constant voltage / constant current controller (CV / CC) eliminates the optocoupler and all secondary side CV / cc control circuits, and can achieve the highest efficiency without current detection resistance; Use less components and low-cost solutions.2. The automatic restart protection function can reduce the output power to less than 95% under the condition of output short circuit or open loop.3. Hysteresis thermal shutdown prevents power damage4. Meet CEC and Energy Star 2.0 efficiency requirements:5. Green package: halogen free and RoHS compliant2、 Working principleFigure 1 is the circuit diagram of a general input 7.6 V, 700 Ma constant voltage / constant current flyback power supply designed using linkswitch II device lnk606pg. The power supply is suitable for LED driver applications.Lnk606pg (U1) integrates the power switching device, oscillator, CC / CV control engine, startup and protection functions into the IC.Diodes D1 to D4 rectify the AC input. Capacitors C1 and C2 filter the rectified AC. These capacitors, together with inductors L1 and L2, can also attenuate differential mode conducted EMI noise. Resistors R1 and R2 can damp the resonant oscillation between these capacitors and inductors. The above design is related to the transformer e-shield of power integration ™ With the combination of technology, the power supply can easily meet the requirements of en55015 class B conducted EMI with a margin of more than 10 dB without y capacitor. Fusible resistor RF1 is used to limit the surge current generated during startup and acts as a fuse in case of component failure due to excessive input current.The power supply design uses the constant current characteristics of U1 integration to drive the LED load, which can work with the maximum output power in the constant current mode. The constant voltage mode of IC U1 can provide output overvoltage protection in case of open circuit fault of any led.When working in the constant current phase, U1 adjusts the output current by changing the switching frequency of MOSFET. As the output voltage increases, U1 will increase its switching frequency. The output voltage is determined by the number of LEDs in the load. The values of resistors R5 and R6 determine the maximum switching frequency and output voltage. The inductance of the transformer ensures that the driver always operates at maximum power.In case of output failure, the power supply will operate in constant voltage mode and use on / off control to adjust the output voltage. This can provide automatic output fault protection and reduce power consumption in this case. The automatic restart function of IC U1 provides output short circuit protection.IC U1 fully realizes self power supply through BP (bypass) pin, decouples capacitor C4, and provides high-frequency decoupling. When the internal MOSFET is turned on, U1 will use the energy stored in C4; When the MOSFET is turned off, the internal 6 V regulator pulls current from the drain pin. This eliminates the external bias winding. Adding an external bias winding will further reduce the no-load power consumption.The rectified and filtered input voltage is applied to one side of T1 primary winding. The MOSFET integrated in U1 drives the other side of the primary winding of the transformer. D5, R3, R4 and C3 form an rcd-r clamping circuit to limit the drain voltage spike caused by leakage inductance. IC U1 automatically compensates the tolerance difference in the primary excitation inductance. The output power is directly proportional to the set primary inductance, and the change of output power can be detected at FB pin. When the output power changes, the switching frequency will be adjusted to compensate the inductance fluctuation.Diode D7 (Schottky barrier diode is selected to improve efficiency) is used for the secondary output of rectifier transformer, and C7 filters it. Resistor R8 and capacitor C6 eliminate high-frequency conducted and radiated EMI. When there is no load connection, the dummy load resistance R9 acts as the discharge resistance of C7.3、 Key points of design1. The creepage distance between the high voltage pin and the low voltage pin on U1 is very large, which can avoid arc and further improve reliability, which is particularly important under high humidity or high pollution conditions.2. Capacitor C7 has low efficiency series impedance (ESR), which can reduce the output voltage ripple and eliminate the LC post filter.3. The feedback resistors R5 and R6 shall have a tolerance of 1% to help strictly control the rated output voltage and constant current regulation threshold at the central position.4. The use of external bias windings can further reduce no-load power consumption. On the PCB board, place the bypass pin capacitor close to U1.5. Reduce the loop area of clamping and output diodes to reduce EMI.6. Keep the AC input at a certain distance from the switching node to reduce the noise coupling that may bypass the input filtering.
Best Practice for Wiring an LED Driver to the Lighting Circuit
Best Practice for Wiring an LED Driver to the Lighting Circuit
Before I begin, I put my hands up and admit I am neither a sparks by occupation, nor a qualified domestic installer, nor Part P qualified. I do have a degree in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, and I spent many years doing temporary lighting installations for theatrical shows, concerts etc - so I am fairly competent and not entirely deserving of being branded as "just DIY". I am currently having my own house renovated and I've engaged a "proper" electrician to undertake all the Part P notifiable work, so do not worry, I am not cutting corners etc, I just want to compass views on "best practice" for my own interest. So - I have a standard domestic lighting circuit, on a newly installed fully compliant board, and I am having a small IP66 LED light put into the shower area as a feature. It's an Aurora product in case anybody's familiar. Aurora have provided an LED driver which has 230v input flyleads and low voltage output flyleads. The intention is to mount the driver (which is only 35x25x20mm) on the vertical wall behind a fitted wardrobe in the adjacent room, with a removable inspection panel in the back of the wardrobe (the in-line extract fan is there too). Currently, there's a run of flex going from the LED location to this wall location, and the twin & earth feed from the light switch also runs there. The question is - what is considered best practice for actually wiring up the LED driver? To be honest I do not know what the overload protection of the LED driver is like - perhaps it's adequate - but a circuit with a 6A breaker seems like a lot to me for a tiny LED. Perhaps this needs addressing, perhaps not. A few options occur to me: 1. Terminate the T&E in an unswitched fused spur plate with a 1a fuse, mount the driver on the wall next to that plate and choc block / WAGO the low voltage side next to it; 2. Put the whole LED driver inside a surface box, choc block / WAGO the 230v and low voltage sides inside the box, put a blank plate on the box and bring the low voltage flex out the side - maybe with some cable ties in the box for strain relief; 3. Wall mount a standard junction box for the 230v side, wall mount the LED driver, and wall mount a choc block for the low voltage side.... ... None of which are "wrong" in my view (although some may argue, or I may have overlooked a regulation in which case I apologise and please enlighten me) - the question is which one (or any other) is "best"? I would appreciate any constructive feedback. Many thanks.Only one of my headphones work! What should i do?You can consider Audio-Technica ATH-M30 Professional Headphones Professional-quality closed-back cynamic stereo monitor headphones Great choice for project studio engineers, home recordists and recording musicians Adjustable cushioned headband and lightweight design for maximum comfort Ultra-flexible 11-foot cable with single-side exit Includes 3.5mm stereo connector with strain relief and professional and screw-on 1/4-inch adapterHooking up a NEMA 6-30p heater to a 6-50r socketYes. Your plan will absolutely work, and be safe. Make sure you properly use flexible cable (likely SOOW) with the breaker box you put together, and consider strain relief where the cable exits the box. However, the cheaper route you mentioned, is not as dangerous as you think. ....Consider any device you plug into a normal 15amp outlet. Very often, the circuit, and breaker are 20amp, even when the outlet has a 15 amp style receptacle. Say you are plugging in a cellphone charger. It needs 0. 1 amp. Yet your circuit breaker exposes it to 200 times that! Omg let's freak out and build a special subpanel at the outlet to provide a breaker appropriate for the cell phone charger. Wait. Nobody does that.Plugging a 30 amp device into a 50 amp outlet is no worse than plugging a 0.1 amp device into a 15 amp outlet. Just change the plug and be done with it. But if you enjoy building sub panels, enjoy this project! If you build a special sub panel just for this, you should consider adding 20 amp breakers and outlets to it also. Could end up being super convenient to have
Application Analysis of Power Supply Applied to LED Driver
LED is a device with nonlinear electrical characteristics. If a low voltage is applied to the LED, it will not turn on. By increasing the voltage, a threshold can be reached. Above this threshold, the device will immediately enter the on state by emitting light and absorbing a large amount of current. However, if the voltage is further increased, the LED will overheat and burn out in a short time. In order to ensure correct and lasting operation, the LED must operate in a narrow voltage range that separates the conduction state from the trip state (Fig. 1).Figure 1: operating voltage range of power LED (red)The problem is that the operating voltage range is not constant. On the contrary, the LED will change according to the temperature and even the service life of the equipment. The forward voltage (VF) of the power LED can vary up to 20%. Therefore, considering that about 60% of the energy provided to the LED is dissipated in the form of heat, heat management is an important factor of power LED.In order to solve the problems related to VF variability, the LED can be driven with a constant current instead of a constant voltage. The driver circuit automatically adjusts the output voltage to maintain a constant current under all conditions. The circuit is suitable for single LED and led strips in series. Even if the VF of each LED is different, it can ensure that all LEDs have the same brightness. Since the LED does not over drive, the circuit ensures the optimal duration of the LED. In addition, if one LED has a short circuit fault, the other LEDs will continue to operate normally.The simplest type of constant current driver includes a constant voltage generator that supplies power to the LED through a resistor. Although the solution is economical, it can not provide accurate current regulation and will emit a lot of heat. In addition, if the LED has a short circuit fault, the resistance will overload and burn out in a short time.Another common constant current driver is a linear current regulator. The feedback circuit in the regulator keeps the current in a very narrow range. The excess power must be dissipated through a special radiator. Due to high dissipation, the efficiency of these circuits is not very high.The best constant current driver is a switching regulator. This is a more expensive solution, but both adjustment accuracy (up to ± 3%) and efficiency (up to 96%) are related to cost / performance. In addition, the DC / DC switching regulator has a wide range of input and output voltages, allowing the connection of different combinations of LED strips with different lengths and supporting LED dimming over a wide range of values.Connection of LED light barMost constant current driver circuits are represented by step-down or step-down converters, where the maximum output voltage is lower than the input voltage, thus limiting the number of LEDs that can be connected. To solve this problem, we can use a boost converter (the output voltage is higher than the input voltage) or use two or more LED strips in parallel.The simplest and safest way to drive LEDs is to use one band for each LED driver. If any of the LEDs in the test strip fails to open, the current flowing through the other LEDs will be interrupted. If any LED is shorted, the current flowing through the remaining LEDs will remain the same.More LEDs can be driven by connecting multiple bars to the same LED driver, but problems may occur if the LEDs fail. If the two strips are connected in parallel, in the event of an open led fault, the constant current supplied by the driver will flow through all the LEDs of the remaining strips, burning them out quickly. Since the power LED is highly reliable, this failure rarely occurs, so it is still common to connect multiple LED strips to the same driver circuit. However, when multiple LEDs are connected in parallel, it is useful to include a circuit (such as a current mirror) that can protect the LEDs by balancing the current flowing through each LED in the event of an open or short circuit fault. String.LED Driver ICInfineon technology provides a series of DC / DC LED driver ICs that support a current of 150 mA to 3 A and are suitable for high-power and ultra-high-power LEDs in general lighting applications. Ild4000 and ild6000 series are the most suitable for buck topology. At the same time, the ild1150 series supports buck / boost, boost and single ended primary inductive converter (SEPIC) configurations.Texas Instruments (TI) lm3404 and lm3404hv are monolithic switching regulators designed to provide constant current for high-power LEDs. Ti device is suitable for automotive, industrial and general lighting applications. It contains a high-end n-channel MOSFET switch. The current limit of its step-down regulator is 1.5A.Editing: hfy
Troubleshooting Defective LED Bulbs
You probably have this IC: something similar one but it does not matter much because it fit your PCB arrangement.As you can see from it the LED peak current is set by parallel connected $R_S2, R_S3$ resistors. And this current will probably be equal to $I_LED approx frac0.6V2.35Omega approx 250textrmmA$.I bought 10 Thomas Watt LED bulbs and 8 are dead in less than a year (each last about 2-3 months). Soometimes a couple of days before they stop working, they flicker when I switch them on or after they are warm.I have open some of the bulbs and for some of them, I saw a little black dot on one or two LEDs. I removed the LEDs and solder the connections (cf the picture). After this repair, the LED bulb works for a while and then stop working again.On a forum someone having similar LED light bulb wrote that the LEDs get twice the current that they are supposed to get. Is this my problem? How can I solve this?On the "SMD side" of the PCB:- DB1 (right) is a brigde rectifier (MB10F)- DS1 (top left) is apparently a Fast / Ultrafast Diode (ES1J)- the resistor: RS1 (1045) 10.1m, RS2 and 3 (4870) 487, RS4(514) 510kOn the "DIP side" of the PCB:- U1 51LP F45·OTHER ANSWER:I bought 10 Thomas Watt LED bulbs and 8 are dead in less than a year (each last about 2-3 months). Soometimes a couple of days before they stop working, they flicker when I switch them on or after they are warm.I have open some of the bulbs and for some of them, I saw a little black dot on one or two LEDs. I removed the LEDs and solder the connections (cf the picture). After this repair, the LED bulb works for a while and then stop working again.On a forum someone having similar LED light bulb wrote that the LEDs get twice the current that they are supposed to get. Is this my problem? How can I solve this?On the "SMD side" of the PCB:- DB1 (right) is a brigde rectifier (MB10F)- DS1 (top left) is apparently a Fast / Ultrafast Diode (ES1J)- the resistor: RS1 (1045) 10.1m, RS2 and 3 (4870) 487, RS4(514) 510kOn the "DIP side" of the PCB:- U1 51LP F45
Application of White LED Driver Cat3636 in Portable Equipment
At present, various consumer electronic products are constantly given new functional features, and with the improvement of complexity, the corresponding power consumption also increases. How to avoid the excessive growth of power consumption by improving the design has become an important topic in front of hardware design engineers. For example, for products such as mobile phones, PMP and GPS, the power consumed by the LCD backlight accounts for a very large proportion of the power consumption of the whole machine, and the LCD screen has a further increasing trend, which will further increase the corresponding power. Therefore, how to reduce the power consumption of LCD backlight has become one of the primary problems to reduce the system power consumption.At present, the mainstream architectures of LCD screens on the market are CSTN and TFT, both of which need a certain brightness backlight to achieve visible images. The brightness demand of the backlight is basically proportional to the size of the LCD screen, but also related to the surrounding environment and the subjective feeling of users. The more popular backlight scheme in China is that the LCD screen below 2.8 inches adopts 2 4 white LEDs, and the LCD screen of 2.8 4.3 inches adopts more than 5 white LEDs. Considering the service life, index and price of LED, the current of single LED is generally controlled at 15 25mA.Most portable devices are powered by lithium batteries. The discharge range of lithium battery is about 3.2 4.2V, while the forward voltage required for white LED in normal operation is between 3.2 3.8V (if = 20mA @ VF = 3.5V). When the load of the system increases suddenly, it will cause battery voltage fluctuation. Therefore, driving white led directly with lithium battery will cause abnormal phenomena such as dark screen or flashing screen.The solution to this problem is to insert a primary boost driving circuit between the lithium battery and the white LED. At present, there are two commonly used architectures: one is inductor boost type, and the other is charge pump boost type.For the driving scheme of 5 6 white LEDs in portable devices, although the inductive boost architecture has more high efficiency advantages than the traditional charge pump boost architecture, noise and the size of peripheral devices are still difficult to overcome in this scheme. In order to drive 5 6 white LEDs arranged in series, the inductive boost chip needs to output at least 16 (3.2V / LED & tips; 5) 21V (3.5V / LED & tips; 6) driving voltage, and its inherent switching circuit ripple is a large noise source for other small signal circuits. If the PWM signal is used to control the enable end of the boost chip for dimming operation, not only the PWM signal itself, but also the fluctuating driving voltage will have an adverse impact on other circuits.Cat3636 is a charging pump capacitor boost white LED driver, which is especially suitable for LCD screen with 5 6 white LEDs as backlight. Similar to the popular capacitor boost architecture, it does not need inductors, only a few small capacity ceramic capacitors are needed in the periphery, and the small-size 3mm & tides are also used in itself; 3mm square tqfn-16 package. Different from the popular capacitor boost architecture, it adopts the patented Quad modetm charge pump technology of catalyst semiconductor company, which can effectively improve the conversion efficiency of backlight LED driver and reduce the power consumption of backlight circuit.At present, most popular charge pump LED drivers provide only three working modes according to the ratio of output voltage to input voltage: 1 times, 1.5 times and 2 times. Quad modetm architecture adds a fourth working mode - 1.33 times. The 1.33x working mode makes the output boost voltage as small as possible, which greatly reduces the useless power consumption and subsequent heat loss of the device. At the same time, the 1.33 times working mode also effectively reduces the input switching current at the battery end, which not only effectively prolongs the working time of the battery, but also minimizes the input noise of the whole system. In particular, in order to realize the 1.33 times working mode, the cat3636 still adopts the peripheral configuration of the popular charge pump LED driver, and only two flying capacitors are used to realize voltage conversion, which makes the chip do not have to increase the number of pins due to the increase of working mode, so that the device can be packaged with small but still cheap TQFN, which is conducive to actual production and procurement.Quad mode charge pump principleCat3636 adopts quad-modetm charge pump boost architecture. Its principle is different from inductive boost circuit. The output voltage and input voltage have a discrete multiple relationship. The charge pump has four working modes: 1 times, 1.33 times, 1.5 times and 2 times.The double mode working principle of quad-modetm charge pump is shown in Figure 1. In the first phase, input the power supply VIN to charge the two external capacitors C1 and C2. At this time, the two external capacitors are connected in parallel, and the a terminal of the capacitor is connected to VIN and the B terminal is grounded. The voltage between the two poles of the capacitor is the input voltage, that is, Vc1 = vc2 = Vin. In phase 2, terminal B of external capacitor is connected to VIN and terminal A is connected to Vout, which is Vout = VIN VC = 2vin. Due to the repeated conversion of the first phase and the second phase, the charge is continuously "pumped" to the output.Fig. 1 principle of 2x Mode BoostSimilar to 2x mode, the working principle of 1.5x mode is shown in Figure 2. In the first phase, C1 and C2 are connected in series between VIN and ground, and the input voltage Vin charges capacitors C1 and C2, Vc1 = vc2 = 1 / 2vin. In the second phase, the two external capacitors are disconnected from the ground and connected to Vout. At this time, Vout = VIN VC = VIN 1 / 2vin = 3 / 2vin. Similarly, this process is repeatedly converted to achieve 1.5 times the boost.Figure 2 1.5x Mode Boost principleDifferent from the traditional 1.33x mode, quad-modetm charge pump can realize 1.33x mode by using only two external capacitors. In the first phase, VIN charges the external capacitors C1 and C2, and C1 and C2 are connected in series. In the second phase, the capacitors C1 and C2 are disconnected from the input power supply VIN, and C1 is inversely connected to VIN and Vout. At this time, C2 remains floating. In the third phase, C1 and C2 are connected to VIN in series, and the positive pole of C2 is connected to Vout. The steady-state output voltage can be solved according to Kirchhoff's voltage law:Phase 1: VIN = Vc1 vc2 (1)Phase 2: Vout = VIN Vc1 (2)Phase 3: Vout = vin-vc1 vc2 (3)Substitute equation (2) into equation (3) to obtain:VIN VC1=VIN-VC1VC2 (4)VC2=2VC1 (5)Replace equation (5) with equation (1):VC1=1/3VIN (6)Then substitute equation (6) into equation (2) to obtain:VOUT=4/3VIN。Figure 3 catalyst's innovative 1.33x mode architectureIf the input voltage Vin is greater than the forward voltage drop VF of the LED, the LED does not need to be boosted, and the quad-modetm charge pump operates in the double mode.According to the principle of energy conservation, the input power Pi of cat3636 is equal to the power pl consumed by the external led plus the power PE consumed by itself, that is, pi = PL PE. The power consumed by cat3636 itself mainly includes charge pump voltage conversion power consumption PC, passive power consumption PS of internal constant current source, power pf consumed by internal logic function module, and heat loss Pt, i.e. PE = PC PS pf Pt. As shown in Figure 4.Figure 4 power consumption distributionConversion efficiency of cat3636 η= PL/PI=PL/(PCPLPSPFPT)。 Since PF and Pt values are relatively small, η ≈PL/(PCPLPS)。 Under the condition of constant current operation, the power consumption pl of LED is approximately constant. Therefore, in the same boost mode, with the decrease of input voltage, the output voltage decreases, and the voltage acting on the internal constant current source also decreases. Therefore, the power consumption PS of constant current source also decreases, and the conversion efficiency of cat3636 η rise; Under the same input voltage, the higher the mode and the higher the output voltage, the greater the power consumed by the internal constant current source and the lower the conversion efficiency. This is why the LED Driver with 1.33x mode has higher comprehensive conversion efficiency than the driver with only 1.5x or 2x mode. Fig. 5 is a diagram of the conversion efficiency of the cat3636 operating within the lithium discharge range.Figure 5 cat3636 conversion efficiency
Power Pc Fan Using Led Driver: 3 Steps -
PC fans are cheap, quiet, consistent, and abundant. Compared to fans you can buy retail on normal house AC circuits they are superior in every way. I will guide you through the easiest way to run one. Cost breakdown Fan 4$ Driver 2$ get a free ride off of a different device's power cord (free) or dedicated power cord Scrap(free hopefully) else 1 - 3 $ solder, heat shrink, elect tape, etc (cheap)total: 2$(scrap fan power cord)total: 7$(all new)From your fan we need to confirm the Voltage, Current, and Circuit type. For most pc fans it will be 12v DC and you just need to get the current rating.The fan i used is from ebay:Circuit type: DCVoltage 12vCurrent 0.36A ( 360mA )So i need to convert my AC home circuit 220v / 110v to 12v dc Now we want to use a current limited power supply that gets close to 12v and is close to 360mAThese are usually marketed as LED drivers, or transformer for LED strips. Need to make sure they are very close and not exceeding the fan current rating(this kills the fan) also max voltage should be12v or less.this one is great for one of my fans 320ma12vthis one i can run 3 of my fans on 300ma 36V Red to red, Black to black If using one fan, its easy just make sure you hook up fan to output marked on driver... and input into a power cord that plugs into your house outlets. If hooking up multiple drivers (say you want to hook up fan with your led lights driver) to one power cable, do it in series. If using more than one fan on your single driver hook them up in series, to - to - make a big loop. Here it is running:
LED Driver Power Supply Solution - MEAN WELL
How To: Building A Solar BikeA solar powered bicycle is a bicycle powered by the solar energy so that one can travel faster for a long time and as it is not using any kind of fuel, it will never caused pollution. Let's learn how to build one!The solar bicycle can be easily created providing you have the necessary tools and equipments at your disposal. Here I am explaining a way to make a solar bicycle within $350. The cost may vary from area to area and depending on the price of the equipments and their availability.One can build this bicycle within two days; one day for procuring the necessary items and equipments and another day for assembling the equipments and charging the solar panel. For testing one more day is required.For this project we can use a mountain bicycle as they are generally tough in any kind of situations and they can give a smoother experience. The main equipments are: motor which motor controller, 36V 10Ah SLA (sealed lead acid) battery pack with charger, mounting rack to mount solar panel and the battery, a 30watt solar panel and charge controller to convert the solar power into battery power. All these equipments are available in big retail stores such as Wal-Mart or one can also go for online shopping through eBay.The equipments I have listed are to make basic version which one can avail within $300. But to get more power and mileage one can select higher range of products as well which may ranges from $400 - $800. Also I have assumed that users already have the bike with them so that cost has not been included in the estimated cost.Basically there are three components-motor, throttle and the battery. They have to be properly connected with the solar panel and the bicycle.First unscrew all the components of the bicycle, especially the wheels and the carrier section. The battery will fit in the carrier section while the motor will get assemble in the wheels. The throttle and the motor will get connected with the battery through the connectors.Secondly, put the battery inside its box as specified in the manual. There are two small holes in the box through which the connecting wires will come out and these wires are directly connected with the battery.Thirdly, put the motor kit in the inside rim of the front wheel and then assemble it in its proper place.Fourthly, unscrew the break at right hand side of the handle (assuming the user is a right handed person) and pull it out. Install the throttle unit in here.Next, connect the throttle and motor with the battery unit with the help of the connectors. Now assemble the entire cycle together and test it by pressing the throttle button whether the motor in the front wheel is working or not. Once that working, the next step is to work on solar panels.Now take the solar panel and mount it on the front side or on above the battery chamber. There's a connector from the solar panel comes out which will go to the battery input unit and it will get connected in here. Now once the solar panel is charged, it will provide power supply to the battery to get it charged and provide power to the motor and the throttle.Here are the popular frequently asked questions and their answer.What is the Solar Panel for?It is there to charge the battery that runs the motor. On long trip or hill area, it will give the extra boost and on short trip it will boost the speed.Is it necessary to pedal?While the solar power is on and the battery is fully charged, it is not really a necessity to pedal but it is helpful always.Is it possible to change the batteries while pedaling?In theory it is possible but in reality is not very comfortable and needs a lot of effort. Also the new battery may not give the same power as the earlier one.How fast it can go?It can go up to 80 km/h on the downhill, 34-48 km/h on flat ground while pedaling and on solar power, 32 km/h on 100% battery support on flat ground and 13-15 km/h on solar power only.What is the range?With fully charged battery it can go up to 55 km, and up to 140 km on a sunny day with fully powered battery on a flat ground. If the road is hilly the range comes down to half of the stated range on the flat ground.Anyone can build it with some basic knowledge and it is always better to work on a mountain bicycle. Also with more powerful battery one can increase the mileage and range.Things to Watch Out ForAfter finishing this project one can go for solar powered scooty or bike and then on car. We have to think of the greener future that can sustain and this is the best time everyone to take responsibility for it.There are various companies out there in the market who offered this kind of bicycles and other accessories but it is better to would o it yourself' by procuring the equipments. This way one can learn and have fun at the same time.
10 Problems That Can Cause Led Driver Failure (Part 3)
5. The test results are different with different loadsNon waterproof LED driver with LED lamp test, it is normal, with electronic load test, the result is likely to be abnormal. Usually this happens for the following reasons:(1) the output instantaneous voltage or power of the driver is beyond the working range of the electronic load meter. (especially in CV mode, the maximum test power should not exceed 70% of the maximum load power, otherwise the load may overpower during loading, resulting in the drive not working properly or loading.)(2) the characteristics of the electronic load meter used are not suitable for measuring constant current source, and the load voltage tap position jumps, resulting in the driver not working normally or loading.(3) because the input of the electronic load meter will have a large capacitor in it, the test is equivalent to connecting a large capacitor in the output of the driver, which may cause instability in the current sampling of the driver.Because the LED driver is designed to meet the working characteristics of LED lamps, the closest to the actual and real application of the test method should be to use LED beads as load, ammeter and voltmeter series to test.Non Waterproof Led Driver6. Outdoor LED driver may be damaged due to the following common conditions:· connect AC to the DC output of the drive, resulting in the failure of the drive;· connect AC to input or output of DC/DC drive, resulting in drive failure;· connect the constant current output end with the dimmer, resulting in the failure of the actuator;· connect the phase line to the ground line, resulting in no output of the driver and live enclosure;7. Wrong phase connectionGenerally, outdoor engineering applications are three-phase four-wire system. Taking the national standard as an example, the rated working voltage between each phase line and the zero line is 220Vac, and the voltage between the phase line and the phase line is 380Vac. If the construction worker connects the driver input end to two phase lines, the product will fail due to excessive input voltage of LED driver after energizing.Because of the difference in the input resistance, when one driver is charged to start, the internal resistance decreases and the voltage may be mostly applied to the other driver, resulting in its over-voltage damage and failure. Therefore, it is recommended that the same distribution branch, switch or circuit breaker to break together, can not only disconnect the zero line.Do not put distribution fuse on the zero line, the line to avoid the zero line bad contact.8. The fluctuation range of the power grid exceeds a reasonable rangeWhen the distribution line of the same transformer power grid branch is too long and there are large power equipment in the branch, when the large equipment starts and stops, the power grid voltage will fluctuate violently, even causing the power grid instability. When the instantaneous voltage of the grid exceeds 310Vac, it is possible to damage the driver (even with the lightning protection device is not effective, because the lightning protection device is to deal with a few tens of us-level pulse spikes, and the power grid fluctuations may reach tens of mS, or even hundreds of mS). Therefore, the street lighting branch power grid has a large power machinery to pay special attention to, it is best to monitor the fluctuation of the power grid, or a separate power transformer power supply.9. The line trips frequentlyToo many lights on the same road lead to overload of the load on one phase of the electricity and uneven power distribution between the phases, resulting in frequent trip lines.10. Drive heat dissipationWhen the actuator is installed in a non-ventilated environment, the actuator shell should be in contact with the lamp shell as far as possible. If conditions permit, the contact surface between the shell and the lamp shell should be coated with thermal adhesive or thermal pad to improve the heat dissipation performance of the actuator, so as to ensure the life and reliability of the actuator.To sum up, there are many details of LED driver in practical application that need to be paid attention to, and many problems need to be analyzed and adjusted in advance to avoid unnecessary failure and loss!China OEM LED Driver, LED Power, LED Adaptor SupplierWe are a worldwide supplier of LED Driver established in 2006. Our products such as LED Driver, LED Power and·RELATED QUESTIONHome solar system - COB LED DriveAssuming there are pure LED, or perhaps just led with a resistance, you can use a current controlled step down buck converter. It will give you more efficiency than going through the 220V, in theory.Product examplePrinciple
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