Does Garbage Collection Affect Performance?

Yes-but in very complex ways that are hard to characterize, and very dependent on a particular program's usage, and even the input data.Sometimes it benefits performance. Sometimes it hurts it. And sometimes it varies and that can be a problem too.But the benefit of avoiding memory free and reuse errors outweighs any performance disadvantage in a vast array of cases, like the browser you are using to read this.

There is overhead associated with any memory management. If you do explicit freeing, that's work. There can be issues with memory fragmentation that result when you allocate different sizes.

Garbage collection avoids explicit freeing. Modern algorithms allow space to be consolidated in ways that avoid fragmentation; most non-GC allocators cannot change the locations of objects to defragment.GC requires work proportional to how much good stuff it has to traverse (and possibly move). Efficiency comes when stuff becomes garbage before the GC even has to look at it-and when it only needs to traverse good stuff rarely.So a pattern where you create a bunch of temporary structure, then save a bit of information, and repeat, works very well with modern GCs, often more efficient.But the performance costs of GC are decoupled from the process of allocation and freeing. In modern GCs, most of the work happens in another thread in parallel ("concurrent GC"). So while code that allocates incurs some amount of GC cost, it is very difficult to quantify any particular code's contribution, because it is more a matter of pattern of memory usage than any particular line of code.And the cost is paid at a later point in time.

Another factor is that it is difficult to predict GC costs. Old algorithms like mark-and-sweep would, whenever you ran out of free space, invoke the GC and you'd sit and wait for it traverse the entire heap. Sit-and-wait is unacceptable for most modern purposes, and is worse for modern (e.

g. large) amounts of data! So nearly all GC algorithms you'll find today will be incremental, and probably concurrent.But in real-time applications, sometimes not knowing when the GC is going to be busy can be a problem. It consumes memory bandwidth and at least one CPU core. Because GC has to look at a lot of different data, it can compete for memory cache lines with the running program. So your program may run within your time constraints-until the GC starts working and slows it down

• Other Questions

If you are a rare coin enthusiast, and have a collection, which are your favourites?

A2A.There are certainly lots of medals and tokens that carry incredible historical significance. From coins used in Nazi concentration camps (see below), to tokens of value created by ancient or remote pre-coin civilizations.Though many books have been written about such coins, Id actually like to take this opportunity to mention some gems among boring modern circulation coins.

I divide circulation coins into two general groups. One constitutes what I will call normal catalogued coins. These are coins that are well known and well documented in various catalogs. The value of such coins follows the law of supply-and-demand. Some of these coins get sold for exorbitant prices, because either a small number of them were minted, or more often, that they had a very high face-value (compared to the mean annual income) at the time that they were taken out of circulation. These rare coins are often made from precious metals, which further adds to their desirability and price. Very few collectors can hope to acquire them, but they are well known to all.Then there are coins that are not listed in catalogues. These may include proof and specimen coins that were not meant to get into circulation (see example below), and got out through error or theft. Others come from trial or experimental mints, where a small batch of coins are produced using an alternative minting process, or trying out a different production contractor. In some rare cases these batches will pass inspection and be put into circulation, yet still have some distinguishing feature. Such coin variants, as they are called, can be in circulation for years before some sharp-eyed collector notices them for for what they are. I see these as the lottery tickets of coins, only that if they turn out to be nothing special, you can still use them at face value. All you need are sharp eyes and lots of luck, and you can discover a small treasure among your pocket change. Ive never been so lucky to discover a rare variant myself, but stories abound of people who have. My hope is to reach sellers that somehow got their hands on such a coins, but dont realize what they have.Many collectors stay away from these coins, as they are focused only in getting the coins listed in the standard catalogs. Others are (rightfully) fearful of them being forgeries, as you often have nothing to compare them to. But the hope of spotting one has spurred my countless hours scouring flea markets and auctions


Can you post something inspiring to study hard?

Nowadays social media is a major cause of distraction for the younger generation. This is something highly addictive and hard to leave. Almost everyone I have met is facing this problem.

So let's play a trivia!Can you guess what's common in all these celebrities?Daniel RadcliffeEmma StoneScarlett JohanssonJeniffer LawrenceKeira KnightleyGeorge ClooneyRachel McAdamsKate WinsletThe common thing is that none of them have a social media account. And that doesn't makes them 'less cooler' and so it doesn't makes you.They have left using social media because "they were distractions to their career.

" If they can do this, so can you!Imagine.If you ignore these minor distractions you will one day be driving thisAnd parking it hereAnd taking it to your beatiful date hereAnd eat literally anything you wantAnd go on the best shopping spree everyday buying all of theseAnd sleeping in here with your soulmateFinally sh!t in peaceGetting rid of daily life problems because you will be having them housekeepersYou will be able to do anything and everything you want!The choice is yours.Study hard right now to earn the above life.

Or waste your precious time in Instagram, movies, cricket etc. and earn a bit of pleasure just for today, suffer for the rest of the life.If you're still not pleased with me let me inroduce Marshall Mathers to you.

His drunk dad left his house at just the age of three. His mom was a psycho and used to beat his brother.He had to change school once in every 3-4 months because he would always end up becoming a potential target of the bullies, once he got severly injured, he was vulnerable, sick and depressed.

He was not welcomed in the rapping community since he was white and "only black people can rap."Still he ceased to stop, ignored everything else and continued his passion of rapping.He got his wife pregnant and now he had a little daughter to feed. Till this moment his wife got fed up since he was earning nothing at all and refused to leave his passion. So one night she looted his entire house, took her daughter and ran away forever.Imagine being at that point to becoming the fastest rapper in the world.

Nothing is more impossible than your dedication!nVibhor Sharma (2003-2020)EDIT: I don't know if this answer got you but it severely affected me! I had been thinking about this day and night and I have left all the social media except Quora. Like this little sacrifice for this year will turn out a fortune to me!Vs


Why is Apple collecting 30% off of subscriptions?

If ever there could be a good time for Apple to experiment with their pricing model, now it is.Apple is a right-brained company - they know how to develop product experiences that will resonate in a deep and meaningful way with the users. They are a customer-driven/obsessed company and have consistently developed products that have won our hearts and wallets. And because they build the products we want, they are right in sometimes leveraging the customer power to maneuver the market to make money. Apple is too far ahead than most of its competitors and understands that some of them are approaching close from some of the announcements we have seen recently (e.g. HP tablet). But none of the competitors are really in a position to break Apple monopoly in certain markets, and while they do hold power, Apple is trying to experiment with innovative business models to generate even more revenue than they currently do.

Their motto has been simple. They deliver for end-user buyers, and have not always been (or even tried to be) the best company for publishers/businesses. This new policy will make customer experience even better with Apple one-click checkouts now embedded into the subscription apps. Personally, i find it a pain to buy products separately from publisher website and have always desired an in-app solution. And when customers en-mass cry for a problem, Apple has had a reputation of heeding advice and delivering solutions. For all the value that they provide to end-users, i absolutely believe that they should not be resented for offering a decent price for that value. They have shareholders to answer to!Of course, i will admit that there are a few risks involved whereby publishers pull might result in linear customer pull. But because Apple has so little meaningful competitors, they can quickly iterate to eradicate the problem (e.g. by collecting 10-15% off) before any of their competitors gain critical momentum over them.Apple has tried to make customer experience better in expense of the businesses they are dealing with. They have tried it before and were shot down by the media, but none of the negative press has ever caused them to loose customers or businesses. Instead, they have only sell more products and won more users with all its bold innovations. We believe that they have perfected the art of making money, only for them to turn up the next day with an even exciting new revenue model that seems unintuitive and doomed at first, but goes on to prove a winner for them. My bet is that once again, most publishers will learn that the allure of earning more (loyal) customers will outweigh the downside of having to pay 30 percent to the company that brought them those users. Inspire of all the negative feedback this will ile nevitabget, i predict It will be a win-win-win situation for apple-users-publishers

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Why Don't Security Services (like Garda's Money Collection People) Have to Conceal Their Handguns?
They are not police, true; however, they are legally armed security officers, and because they move large amounts of money, they are occasionally attacked by those wishing to take that money. At a WalMart in Washington state. in a robbery master-minded by a cashier, the shooter walked up behind the guard and shot him in the back of the head. No demand for the money or anything, just a cold-blooded execution. I am sure if I researched, I could find enough similar instances to let you realize why armored car guards are armed. It is to protect the security guards in the event of a hold up attempt1. car accident with no insurance. collection agency wants me to pay?The main uplifting news here is that they said that they may take legitimate activities. They normally do not say that in the event that its actual. Since they said that they may do it, they likely are not going to do it. On the off chance that they were going to do it, then they likely would not have cautioned you2. When do we need to add content inside for Java Collection?For the left hand side of assignments you need to specify the generic types. For the right hand side however you can use the diamond operator "" IF YOU HAVE JAVA 7 or newer.See here for a small motivation:Why Use Generics?In a nutshell, specifying generic types makes your programs more safe (in terms of security, but most of all in terms of stability). The inconvenience that you had to type a lot of stuff inside the braces is now partly gone because you can just use "" on the right hand side of assignments.Do not do stuff like "new HashMap()", do it so: "HashMap map = new HashMap()". You can also use interfaces in your variable declaration and you should whenever you can, so the best way would be: "Map map = new HashMap()". If you do not use Java 7, or better 8, yet, switch. The new features introduced there make your life easier, especially Java 8's stream API and lambda functions3. Why there is not "the" instead of "a": "It requires A thirty-minute drive to the nearest collection box"?Why there is not "the" instead of "a": "It requires 'a' thirty-minute drive to the nearest collection box"?The drive that is being referenced is just one of many 30-minute drives that are possible; therefore "a," not "the."4. If one were writing the next Indiana Jones movie, what would Indy be seeking to add to his Museum collection?I would like to first answer the subtitle of your question, namely "where should the franchise head next?"...:I think there exists a fantastic opportunity to develop a truly "transmedia" property, which could learn from such disparate things as Will Wright's "Bar Karma", geocaching, Kit Williams's seminal book "Masquerade", and the still as yet unrealized promise of social engagement and crowd-sourcing.For better or worse, few properties are so fully developed in the collective consciousness of the consumer population as successful film franchises: we know the central characters intimately, the likely plot points, the requisite twists, and so much more about the mythology of a successful franchise of films. The result is a springboard for our fullest possible immersion, to a degree that most other brands could not confidently engage upon. We feel empowered to participate as more than just an audience, even if the means do not exist to realize and manifest this sense of empowerment. Just take a look at Ken Miyamoto's comprehensive and inspiring pitch, Jon Mixon's tangential but nevertheless compelling "alternative" concepts, and even Rodrigo Estrada Gil's critical satire. These could not have been developed in the absence of multidimensional, fully realized worlds, characters, and through lines. All that's missing is us.3D film-making is not the savior of the entertainment industry that it has been touted to be, IMHO. It is a stop gap gimmick: at best mildly compelling when used in service of the story (Avatar), at worst a messy device to overlay less than powerful content with a veneer of " a little sumethin' else", but most of the time little more than a flashy (and often dizzying) gimmick, designed not so much to enrich the story, but to justify an increase in ticket prices, and add an unneeded spice to the recipe of storytelling. (Oversimplification warning, simply to make a point) Stories used to be told by a griot, around a fire. Then the listeners began to act out the story, and theatre was born. Then came film, then TV, and the participation of the audience was eschewed, in favor of their acquiescence. The Internet, social media, mobile apps, WiFi, games, and other emerging modes of content creation and distribution have brought the process full circle, and the audience is once more moving toward the warm center of the story circle, participants once more in the telling of the story, first by extending the story across platforms and media, and now - quite possibly - by becoming contributors to the core story itself.Indy hunts a mythical treasure. Why not take a page (or several) from "Masquerade" by Kit Williams, a book that inspired a nation to go treasure hunting? Put an actual item of treasure somewhere extremely well hidden, somewhere in the world. Develop a story line that has crowd-sourced aspects (taking a cue from "Bar Karma", and learning from what worked and what could be improved upon in that production). Intersperse certain necessary story line milestones. Produce long form episodic content, incorporating user-generated plot points, characters, as well as professionally developed and existing characters and plot points. Add a parallel dimension to the experience, extrapolating from the storyline clues as to where this treasure might lie, incorporating video captured on mobile devices by fans, and other content. Use these content and story "uploads" to develop the next chapters in the adventure, always controlling the revelation of clues, so that the treasure cannot be found too soon. The layers of storytelling richness, cross-platform immersion, multichannel distribution, brand expansion, and audience engagement are almost infinite. The revenue generation possibilities are also multifarious. The undertaking would be monumental, but it could - if undertaken with equal measures of ambition, open-mindedness, creativity, and humility - finally help the entertainment industry evolve its business model and open the story circle once more to include one and all.
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