Inexpensive Controllers for Small DC Motors - Introducing the DMC-1

About a year ago, I decided to build a robotic platform to perform some experimentation with various robot guidance systems. My objective was to get the platform up and running with a minimum of fuss. To do this I decided to use as many off-the-shelf components as possible.

For my microcontroller, I decided upon the Parallax BS2. I already had one lying around, so the cost was moot. I'm not against other controllers and should my experimentation prove fruitful, the resulting project will undoubtedly need a larger, more capable controller.

My mobile platform was a recycled remote control vehicle liberated from Radio Shack many years ago. This platform has track drive with each track driven independently by a separate DC motor. As this is a small platform, I could comfortably keep my power requirements to around 2 amps max at 9 volts. Keeping this in mind, I first decided to build a couple of H-Bridge circuits out of discrete components. I certainly have what I needed in my junk box to do so. However, my objective was to use off-the-shelf components. I reconsidered and decided to find an affordable, pre-built alternative.

The Basic Stamp has quite a few usable I/O lines, but I really wanted to keep as many free as possible for my guidance experiments. I decided that the best course was to find an intelligent controller which I could command serially. I searched the usual sources, but I couldn't find one I thought was reasonably priced. I always buy in minimums of two. That way, just in case I destroy one, I have a spare. The minimum price I found from the usual sources was $30, so two were going to cost $60 - too much!

That's when I turned to eBay. Lo and behold, my search was successful. I found the DMC-1 Serial Dual Motor Controller The DMC-1 is a dual motor controller from IMS LLC that can be controlled with standard 5V TTL signals at 2400 - 19200 baud or by I2C protocol. Each controller can handle 1.2A per motor continuous (3A peak) at 2.5 - 15V. The best part is the price: $12.95 each!.

When I received my controller, I was shocked at the size. This thing is small! So small that I was worried it wouldn't be able to withstand a continuous current of 2.6 A (two motors).

First, I read the documentation. The DMC-1 has nine connection pins. A positive and negative connection for each of the two motors consumes 4 pins. SCL and SDA pins for communicating with the controller using serial TTL or I2C accounts for two. One pin for 5V logic supply, one pin for the 2.5 - 15V motor supply and one pin for ground rounds out the complement of nine.

Connecting the DMC-1 to my BS2 and the motors on my platform was a piece of cake. Plugging in the controller to my breadboard, I used the regulated 5V supply from my BS2 protoboard to supply the logic. I connected the positive and negative leads from the motors to the appropriate rows on my breadboard. I used a 9.6V RC battery to supply the motors. I selected two pins from my BS2 to communicate with the DMC-1 and connected a common ground for the controller and motor supply. Now I was ready to communicate with the controller.

Although the manual is more than adequate, IMS, LLC supplies a sample BS2 control program to get you started. I fired up the Basic Stamp editor, loaded the program, made a few adjustments on pin assignments, compiled the program, downloaded it to the stamp and it worked!

Of course, I had to tweak the code for my application, but it was easy to do and the controller worked flawlessly. Earlier I said I was worried that the controller might need a heat sink. I am happy to report that during my use, the controller doesn't even get warm, so I think this was an unnecessary concern.

Conclusion The DMC-1 is a well made, inexpensive, flexible dual motor controller for small platforms. If you are in need of just such a controller, I recommend you check it out. It will certainly take more time to build an H-bridge from your junk box and you won't have the flexibility of a serial controller. I haven't had the opportunity to test the I2C capability, but plan to do so in the not to distant future.

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Shunt DC Motor Controller Improvement
Shunt DC Motor Controller Improvement
Shunt DC motor controller improvementSo this looks as if the circuit controls armature current?It controls armature voltage.would it be better if the winding current was controlled?Controlling armature current with an outer voltage or speed control loop would be better, but more complex.By "winding current" I suspect you mean field winding current as apposed to armature winding current. Controlling the field winding current would make the minimum operating speed about equivalent to the present maximum speed. Reducing the field current will increase the speed and reduce the torque capability. I doubt very much that is what you want.The above seem to be the only actual questions asked. The question seems to imply that you wish to improve the control scheme because the motor " runs slightly erratically." You have not actually described what aspect of motor performance is undesirable.Speed decrease with increased load is normal for a simple armature voltage control. Random speed variation with a steady load could be due to line voltage variation, other power quality issues, motor brush problems or a loose connection. Failure to start relably would like be a brush problem— — — — — —Can you use an AC switch with a DC motor?Just follow the ratings of the switch. Typically, the DC voltage rating is less than the AC voltage rating. Current ratings are normally the same— — — — — —What is an interpole in a DC motor?Thanks for A2A.Purpose of Interpole in DC MachineFor understanding the role of Interpoles, we need to understand the effect of armature reaction in the DC Machine. The effect of armature mmf on the main field flux is to distort the main field flux and to reduce the net main field flux. The figure below, shows the effect of armature mmf on the main field flux. It is quite clear from the above figure that the flux at the location of Carbon Brush i.e. A, B and A are not zero and therefore an EMF will be induced in the coils undergoing commutation and will lead to the sparking. As we know that for better commutation, the coils short circuited by the brushes should have zero EMF induced in them. As the zero crossing of field flux is shifted due to armature reaction, the coils undergoing the commutation will have a net EMF induced in them. This induced EMF in the short circuited coil will delay the reversal of current in the short circuited coils and will result into poor commutation and sparking at the carbon brushes.The question arises how to resolve this issue?If we see the figure above, we observe that there is a net shift of zero crossing of net flux in the air gap by an angle Ɵ in the direction of rotation for Generator and opposite to the direction of rotation for Motor. So the cheap and easy solution shall be to shift the Carbon Brush at Zero Crossing of the air gap flux.Thus carbon Brush need to be shifted by an angle Ɵ from Geometrical Neutral Axis (GNA) in the direction of rotation for Generator and opposite to the direction of rotation for Motor.But this method of shifting the Carbon brush has a big disadvantage. What is that?As the Armature Reaction depends on the current flowing through the armature winding which in turn depends on the load current. Therefore as the loading of the DC Machine varies the angle Ɵ will also vary and therefore we need to continuously shift the Carbon Brushes. So we need to find a smart way.Again, looking back to the figure, if it could be possible to make the resultant or net air gap flux zero at GNA, then there would not have been any detrimental effect of armature reaction on commutation. Also, the existing flux at the GNA (at point C) is due to North Pole so we could use a South Pole (opposite of the pole which produced the imbalance at C) at C so that the net flux at C becomes Zero. Similarly at C' we can use a North Pole to make net flux Zero there. Okay, this will work fine but how t change the magnitude field strength of this newly installed poles at C and C'? Hmmmm. .We can use a winding on the newly installed poles at C and C' and connect that winding in series with armature winding so that the strength of field due to newly installed poles at C and C' varies proportionally will the loading of machine. Yes, this will work fine.So we can conclude our solution as,We will use Poles same as that of Main Poles ahead of GNA or Carbon Brush for Generator at the location of GNA or Carbon Brush and Poles same as Main Pole that of behind the GNA or carbon Brush for Motor at the location of GNA or Carbon Brush and will use winding on them and connect them in series with the armature winding as shown in figure below.The Poles used in our smart solution is called the Interpole. Interpoles are narrow poles placed at the GNA and fitted to the Yoke and also known as Commutating Poles or Compoles. For generator, the polarity of Interpoles must be same as that of main Pole ahead of it in the direction of rotation. For Motor, the polarity of Interpole must be same as that of Main Pole behind it. So I expect that you understand the purpose of Interpoles as you only designed it. But there is one more interesting role of Interpole.Interpole do not only nullify the effect of armature reaction but in addition, produces some extra mmf in the interpolar zone. This extra mmf in the interpolar zone induces rotational EMF in the short circuited coil undergoing commutation in such a direction to oppose the reactance voltage in the coil. Thus the resultant the resultant voltage in the short circuited coil becomes zero and the commutation is spark less.What is an interpole in a DC motor?
Toshiba Launched Two New Three-phase Brushless Motor Controller IC
No phase adjustment is required to achieve high efficiency in a wide speed range.Shanghai, China, April 25, 2019 - Toshiba electronic components and Storage Devices Co., Ltd. ("Toshiba") today announced the launch of two three-phase brushless motor controller ICs, namely "tc78b041fng" in ssop30 package and "tc78b042ftg" in vqfn32 package. Both products adopt Toshiba's original automatic phase adjustment function Inpac [1] - this technology can not only eliminate phase adjustment, but also achieve high efficiency in a wide range of motor speed. This makes it easy for them to be used in combination with motor drivers with different voltage and current capacities, and also with intelligent power devices in the output stage. The two controllers are suitable for air conditioners, air purifiers and other household appliances as well as industrial equipment, and mass production began today.Tc78b041fng product drawingTc78b042ftg product drawingManufacturers of household appliances and industrial equipment are increasingly using frequency converters to control fan motors to meet the strong demand for improving energy efficiency and reducing noise. Generally, in order to obtain high efficiency, it is necessary to adjust the phase of motor voltage and current for each independent fan motor. From almost zero speed at start-up to thousands of revolutions per minute (RPM), to achieve high efficiency in a wide speed range, a large number of components need to be used for phase adjustment. At the same time, MCU control system needs to be introduced, and its development takes time.Toshiba's original new control technology Inpac can automatically adjust the phase of Hall signal and motor current. The new product adopting this technology can drive the motor in a wide speed range with the efficiency comparable to that of MCU control system. Inpac can not only ensure the high efficiency of fan motor drive, but also reduce noise through sine wave drive.In addition, since the phase adjustment can be automatically performed through simple settings, the development time used for software and MCU adjustment in the past can be saved, so as to simplify the application.Ø main characteristics:(1)InPACNo phase adjustment is required to ensure high efficiency in a wide speed range.Simple Hall signal and output current phase adjustment to achieve high efficiency drive.(2) Low noise and vibrationThe current waveform of the system driven by sine wave is smooth, which can reduce noise. Compared with the system driven by rectangular wave, the motor noise and vibration are reduced.(3) Small packageVqfn32 (5mm) is adopted for tc78b042ftg × 5mm × 1mm) package for easy installation in limited space. Tc78b041fng in common ssop30 package is also provided.Ø application:Air conditioners, air purifiers and other household appliances and industrial equipment.Ø main specifications:notes:[1] Inpac: intelligent phase control, Toshiba's original automatic phase adjustment function
What Is a Disable Input for on a Motor Controller For?
This is a H-bridge motor controller which works like this:simulate this circuit - Schematic created using CircuitLabHere, SW2&3 are closed, so the left terminal of the motor is connected to the negative, the right to the positive terminal of the supply. You can reverse the direction by closing SW1&4. (but never have 1&3 or 2&4 closed at the same time)Normally, D1 is LOW and D2 is HIGH. As soon as one of the both signals is in an other state, all switches will be opened ("high impedance") and there will be no connection to any terminal of the source (Note: to switch off the motor, it's usually sufficient to open just the lower switches, or just the upper.)If you apply a PWM signal of 70% duty cycle to D1, D1 will be HIGH 70% of the time - the switches are all open 70% of the time and closed 30%. As stated in the comment, this can be used for two end switches. However, the combination of one active low and one active high signal can be used for higher safety: Imagine a door which should not be opened while the motor is running. A simple door switch may fail and the controller will not notice that someone opened the door. Now you can use a change-over switch which opens one circuit and closes the other. This will not work if the switch gets stuck in one position, but it still adds some reliability to the safety system1. Robot motor help!!! Electric Motor and Battery Questions.?Now one can answer this because we do not know what the motor current will be and we do not know the battery ratings2. Where's is the vtec located in the motor?The VTEC system (Variable Timing and Lift Electronic Control) is a system that uses 2 different camshaft profiles, one for low RPM torque and economy and the other to maximize volumetric efficiency and power at high RPM. The system consist of an extra set of followers that are hydraulically engaged by a locking pin and allows the valves to open more (more lift) and for a longer period of time (Duration) when the electric VTEC solenoid allows engine oil pressure to the actuator there is also a VTEC oil pressure sensor that sends feedback to the PCM (Powertrain Control Module) ADDED: Wayne gets T.U for his description, the other poster "You drive a mopar" you REALLY lose, but you do not even know it yet!3. What is an orbital motor?ANSWER No Orbital motor and hydraulic motor are not synonymous terms.A hydraulic motor is essentially a hydraulic pump in reverse. It has one or more pistons that move in a cylinder, with valves and timing, rather like an internal combustion engine powered by compressed air. By comparison, here's an orbital motor. Main advantages are that the "motor" itself is quite small, and generates little heat compared to an electric motor. Also, this is a high torque but low speed shaft, so there's no need for a gearbox in situations where an electric motor would need a gearbox.Downsides, its low speed, so if you want to move something quickly, it may not be the best motor for the job. You will also need pressurised lines to and from the motor to your pump.Here's a cutaway showing more of how it works. Notice the shaft in the middle is not flat - this is the rotor shaft and is seen in the middle of the blue picture above, and is not flat.4. difference between scooter and motor cycle?I think the most obvious difference is the engine position and consequently frame design. There are so many variants that this is just a generality but the engines of scooters are placed as close to the rear wheel as possible, frequently at the side of the wheel, a motorcycle engine is positioned to the centre of the frame5. What size motor for a boat ?10 hp 20 hp 50 hp 75 hp 100 ho,,,,150 hp,,,thats the worst question,,,a lightweight open 14 footer will be ok with 15/hp..my buddys 18 foot fiberglasscuddy cabin has a 150 merc6. how to winterize a boat motor?When boating season ends, some people park the boat in the storage yard or driveway without a thought for starting the engine the next season. In so doing, they insure that the first start up of the next season will be troublesome or expensive or both. Many of the problems associated with that first trip to the water can be avoided by taking the time to winterize the motor before laying the boat up for the winter. Step 1 Change the engine coolant and thoroughly rinse the cooling system, including the engine block, heat exchangers, water heater and the overflow bottle. Refill the cooling system with a 50/50 mixture of fresh anti-freeze and water by filling the heater hose with a small hand pump and filling the engine when the mixture returns from the water heater to the engine. When the coolant fills the "fill tank," reconnect the heater hose to the engine. This will eliminate almost all of the air from the cooling system. Step 2 Change the engine and transmission oil, draining the engine oil from the oil pan sump and the transmission oil from the gear box sump through the oil drain plugs on each. Replace the old oil with the new oil of the proper grade, through the oil filler cap. Change the in-line oil filters and, if so equipped, the Racor cartridges. Step 3 Remove the flame arrestor from the engine air intake. Spray fogging oil into the carburetor while the engine is running to prevent corrosion in the carburetor and jets. Step 4 Shut off the fuel supply valve or disconnect the fuel line from the motor and let the motor run until it runs out of fuel. When the motor begins to die, put one more heavy spray of fogging oil into the air intake, through the flame arrestor. Step 5 Drain all water from the muffler canister. Step 6 Seal all air inlets, crankcase and transmission vents, exhaust outlets and tank vents with plastic wrap and duct tape. There are other tips in the website below.
Can You Use a Dc Motor Controller?
NO! Do not do because a DC motor controller puts DC current into the circuit who acts as control, or, puts a variable voltage across it to define the speed of the controlled motor. You need to (in most of the situations) control the phase angle to make a variable speed and the power supplied to the motor. Good luck.1. Drive DC Motor with H Bridge(H Bridge turns off too slow and problem with current monitor)To switch a power MOSFET, you have to move a substantial charge through the gate and the source. The datasheet will specify something like "total gate charge". In order to move all that charge in a short time, you need high current. And in your circuit you can not have high current, since the current through the gate is ultimately limited by R1 and R3.In other words, the problem is that with your design, U1B does not fully turn off until some time after S1 goes low. And when it does turn off, it does so slowly, which is why you see the voltage at T1 ramp down slowly. See What is MOSFET gate drive capability and why do I care about it?In order to reduce this problem, you need to increase the current that your gate driver can source and sink. A simplistic solution is to add a pair of emitter-followers, like this:simulate this circuit - Schematic created using CircuitLabYou can get fancier with a discrete approach like the one that follows. In addition to having emitter followers to increase the current drive, it uses a clamp (D13, D23) to reduce the storage delay of the BJTs Q11 and Q21. You can read more about it in another answer.Or, you can just buy an integrated MOSFET gate driver and call it a day2. Will a dc motor generate as much power as it can put out?Nope... motors & generators are not 100% efficient, thus power out is always less than power in, regardless of the direction of flow. For a smaller motor like that you are probably looking at around 20% loss from input power to output power. With a higher mechanical input power (>6500 rpm at 5in-oz) you might get 150W electrical output, but I would look pretty carefully at the manufacturer's data to be sure you are not overheating the windings.3. DC motor and encoder for pendulum with low static frictionActually, you need to rethink your controller. As stated, forcing the motor voltage to zero will cause the motor to provide a large damping force to the pendulum. The reason is that any motion of the motor shaft will cause the motor to act as a generator. Keeping the motor voltage at zero is effectively the same as providing an extremely small resistance across the motor (E = iR, after all), and this will resist any motor motion. So simply controlling the motor voltage will not allow the pendulum to swing freely, regardless of friction4. Question about a DC motor comutator?The commutator bars are the strips of copper mounted arount the perimiter of the commutator . As you pointed out each commutator bar is connected to the end of an armature coil. You are correct in your observation that a brush can bridge across two commutator bars during the transisition of switching from one set of coils to the other. Since the armature coils are wound in the same direction and are mounted along side one another the electricity produced in these adjacent coils is inphase and at similar (but not equal) voltages. In effect during this breif period where a brush bridges between two adjacent commutator bars the effect is like having two armature coils in parallel. During this change over period two coils share the load so current does drop in one coil as it increases in the other coil. BUT !!!! You have forgotten to consider that the voltage produced in the armature is constantly changing and is actually an AC sine wave. Maximum potential is generated as the coils cut across the magnetic line of flux where they are concentrated at the field poles and also at a right angle to the coils movement. At the coil continues to rotate away from the field pole the flux density decreases and motion of the coil tend to travel in parallel to the lines of flux. the result is little to no voltage is produced. Again this is illustrated in an AC sine wave which shows a constantly changing level of voltage between zero and peak Pos and neg voltages. In order to minimize brush sparking and major changes in current flows in the armature coils, the brushes are located at an angular position with respect to the rotor where the AC sine wave voltage produced within the armature winding is at a zero or near zero value. So the switching of the coils and the bridging of the adjacent commutator bars which you are questioning is happening at a point in the armature rotation where there is little if any voltage being generated in the armature. The effect is temporarly placing two armature coils in parallel to each other as the gap between two adjacent commutator bars passes under a brush. This is one of several reasons why the
Bi-directional DC Motor Controller
I drew a simple schematic of the idea we were talking about yesterday. I think it's not necessary to ramp the motor speed down and up before and after switching its direction. I would be nice but is just unnecessarily complicates things. It uses a microcontroller to control 2 relays. The SPST relay is used to cut power to the motor while the direction is changed. The additional pushbutton is for changing the motor direction. The code will be trivial. Essentially it will monitor the direction pushbutton in a loop. If it's pressed it will switch the SPST off, wait for motor to stop spinning, flip the DPDT relay, and energize the SPST relay again. The time to wait for the motor to stop spinning has to measured and correctly set in the code.I hope that helps. Good luck.1. run a 6V DC motor with 12v DC power source?The motor winding will burn with that amount of voltage2. How does PID for a DC motor slow down the motor or fast as it approaches a threshold distance with an ultrasonic sensor?A PID control function modulates it's output as needed to hold the set point value so is not that suited to that kind of control, fuzzy logic would be better. Saying that, as it approaches the stop it will reduce the output to the motor until it is zero3. Can a DC motor be of specification 320Watts, 3A, 24 V?In my opinion this is the nominal specifications. And the power is written as peak :) This is like on cheap stereo written for example 3000W, but the RMS is always hidden and much lower:))Anyway, i think this specification of power shows peak power or stall current.UPDATEIf you want to use it for wheelchair this is not the motor you need. Because it is C. C. W - counter cock wise, that means this motor is not recommended for clockwise turning. It is limited due to angled brushes. H-class is insulation class. H stand for 180C4. Does a rotating DC motor near a TV affects the signals coming in the TV?That is called EMC : Electromagnetic compatibility.Your DC machine stator is fed through a brush. Since it is rubbing the commutator plates, it can generate sparks, small arcs and so on. Since these phenomena are really fast, they tend to emit electromagnetic radiations in the whole frequency spectrum (see the Fourier transform of a dirac delta function) and sprinkle EM signals in all around them.Your antenna (and your cathodic screen) may recieve this noise signal, and the original signal is polluted5. Why does my raspberry pi zero w crashes when controlling a DC motor with an L9232D and a 9g Servo motor?the spike caused by motors, drops the controller voltage.in this case (the pi), it will drop to 4.6 v for example, which is enough to cause to to reboot.either use an adapter for rpi, or give it another clean power source. plus, for the same reason DIY quadcopters have separate batteries dedicated for the controller6. Diode Value for 12V DC Motor?a DC motor works by generating a reverse voltage to the supply. That is how the speed of the motor is controlled. The reverse voltage (called the back EMF) is proportional to the motor speed. When the reverse voltage matches the supply voltage minus what is needed to do the work the fan speed is stabilised. Your problem probably one of the motor is not a 12 Volt motor the fan is too large for the motor the motor is damaged.7. Why can't I vary the speed of a dc motor with only a potentiometer?What you are seeing is probably a combination of two things: the current capacity of the 9V battery and the resistance of the potentiometer.Your typical household 9V batteries are notorious for their very high internal resistance. If you are trying to source more than just a few 10's of mA, the voltage across the battery's terminals will begin to drop considerably. You did not say anything about what kind of motor you have, but I would guess there's a strong chance the battery is having a hard time turning the motor at all, even with low external resistance.Now for the potentiometer. You have the right idea using the pot as a variable resistor. For the simple experiment you are doing, there's no need to connect the other side of the potentiometer to ground. That's just needlessly wasting current out of the battery. This should be all you need:simulate this circuit - Schematic created using CircuitLab The reason it's not working for you is because the 10k value you picked is simply too big. Turning the pot even just a little bit will quickly introduce several hundred Ohms, which will drop almost all of the voltage across the pot resistance before it gets to the motor.In order to figure out how big the potentiometer should be, experiment with static resistors in series with the motor first. Find the largest resistance that still allows the motor to turn slightly. You will probably find the value is very low: a few 10's of Ohms or in the low 100's. If you then use a potentiometer in that range, your experiment will work.
Tips to Help You Design the Perfect Solar Battery for That Party
Tips to Help You Design the Perfect Solar Battery for That Party
Various size of solar batteryThe first model of solar battery was built in 1976 and they are still popular today. There are two types of solar battery: solid-state and capacitive. They are used in combination with other energy storage devices such as solar cells. In general, they are useful for many different purposes. A good solar battery is made from plastic and it can run for many hours without stopping to take off the lid of the device. When you put a solar battery in your home, it will provide enough light to let you have a better view of the world.The problem with solar energy is that it is difficult to know what kind of power source to use. When you have to run an electric vehicle, it is very hard to know what kind of energy source to use. Most people don't have any idea about how to use solar energy. The main way to use solar energy is to charge your phone or electricity bank and make a long call to your local utility company. You can find out more about solar energy by reading this blog article.There are different types of solar battery, but what is the best way to use solar battery? What is the best way to use solar battery? Do you know which type of solar battery to buy? I would love to hear your thoughts. Let me know your thoughts in the comments section below. I would love to hear your thoughts on these questions and what are the best ways to use solar battery?I don't know if there are any number of different types of solar battery, but it is hard to say. Most solar battery come in the form of lithium ion batteries, which are very expensive and have low storage capacity. If you want to buy solar battery then there are many other options available. They include: 3V Li-ion batteries, lithium ion batteries, and 2V Li-ion batteries. There are also some more popular 3V Li-ion batteries that can be bought online.What are the pros and cons of different solar batteryPeople have different opinions on how to use solar energy. Solar energy is renewable energy that uses electricity from fossil fuels. There are many different types of solar energy systems, some of which use batteries as backup power sources. The main way to use solar energy is to store it in a storage system and then use it to produce electricity. A good solar energy system will work in most cases, but there are some disadvantages to using solar energy systems.In general, there are two main types of solar battery. One is that it's much more efficient than a conventional battery and it uses less energy than a traditional battery. The other is that it's very expensive. You can buy solar battery directly from the store and charge it in a tank or in a mobile phone. It is quite easy to make and make use of batteries, but you need to learn how to use them properly. So, here's the guide on how to use solar battery.I am so used to looking at solar lights in the background, but my biggest concern is how do I get them to work properly? There are some really good options out there. If you have an electric car you will be able to see a few hundred meters away from you when you turn it on. Solar lights can also help you save energy and use less electricity. A good solar light will last up to 6 hours, but they can also cause problems with night driving.All solar batteries are energy efficient and you need to choose the right one for your needs. The best solar battery is that they have an efficiency of over 200% and have low noise. All solar batteries have good durability and cost, so you can choose the best solar battery for your needs. It is easy to clean and doesn't require any maintenance. All solar batteries have an eco-friendly design and can be charged in a matter of minutes. All solar batteries have high safety and quality.How to decide the right size of solar batteryThis guide will help you determine the right size of solar battery. This guide will help you make sure that you have the right type of solar battery and what kind of solar battery you need. Also, it will help you choose the right type of solar battery and how much it will cost. You can check out the current market trends and compare with other factors like model, price, capacity, output, and installation. If you are planning to buy solar battery then make sure that you have the right type of solar battery.As we are all aware, there are many different types of solar batteries and some of them can be found in different sizes. For example, you can find solar energy storage devices in your home, or you can use solar energy storage devices to store electricity. You can use solar energy storage devices to charge your phone, connect to your internet or connect to a utility pole. If you need to get a new battery or get a new battery for your car, you can always buy solar energy storage devices from Solar Battery Company.I would say that I don't know how to decide the right size of solar battery. You can use your own judgement and you will be well on your way to making sure that you get the best possible light and heat efficiency for your home. You will need to make sure that you have enough batteries for your home so that you can run them in the most efficient way possible. Also, make sure that you get a good warranty on your solar battery so that you can keep it running for as long as possible.The average price of solar battery in India is around Rs. 4,000. The most important thing to do is get the best price for solar battery in India. There are two main types of solar battery that are available in the market and there are two types of solar battery. They are Solar Rechargeable Battery and Solar Lithium Battery. These batteries can be bought from various stores and you can find different kinds of solar battery at different prices. They are good for low energy consumption and it is very easy to charge them.
Functional Features and Application Introduction of TG452 Series Intelligent Street Lamp Gateway
Functional Features and Application Introduction of TG452 Series Intelligent Street Lamp Gateway
TG452 street lamp dedicated gateway is an industrial wireless communication gateway dedicated to smart street lamps. It is the core equipment of smart lamp poles. It can be connected to lighting, safety monitoring, wireless coverage, broadcasting, information release, environmental meteorological monitoring, emergency alarm, municipal facilities monitoring, charging pile and other information acquisition sensors and sensing equipment for power remote monitoring and energy consumption monitoring. It has the characteristics of high speed, strong function, single lamp control and edge calculation.Functional featuresSupport 5g / 4G / PPPoE / DHCP / static address and other connection modes, wired and wireless backup each other, and multiple working modes can be selected;Single lamp concentrators such as PLC carrier ZigBee / Lora can be connected externally to realize the centralized management of single lamp of non smart pole street lamp;Arm architecture high-end processor; Standard Linux system supports user secondary development;Strong edge computing capability, integrated data acquisition, processing and execution, real-time analysis, safe and efficient;Support equipment software and hardware self inspection technology and fault self repair; Online link detection to achieve automatic reconnection after disconnection;Support TCP / IP, UDP, mqtt, MODBUS, TFTP, HTTP and other network protocols;Support IPSec, L2TP, PPTP, OpenVPN and other VPN types; Support APN / VPDN data security transmission;Support 5g / 4G, WiFi and network port access to the Internet to interact with the system cloud platform data;main parameter 3-way RS-485 and 2-way RS-232 interfaces, which can connect various peripherals such as environmental meteorological sensor and single lamp controller;1-way WAN port and 3-way LAN port. The WAN port can be configured as LAN port and can be connected to 4 network port devices at most;2-way switching value (DI) input, support low level, and can effectively detect the status of peripherals;TF card storage, external mass storage, capacity up to 128G;Operating temperature range: - 35 75oC; Storage temperature range: - 40 80oC;The protection grade is IP30, the shell and system are safely isolated, and the EMC grade indicators reach level 3;Typical applicationJixun TG452 smart street lamp gateway can help users quickly access high-speed Internet and realize safe and reliable data transmission. It is widely used in various types of light poles in smart cities, municipal, highways, characteristic towns, scenic spots, parks and other occasions.
What Is the Best the Best Solar Street Light for You? - the Best Solar Street Light Reviews
What Is the Best the Best Solar Street Light for You? - the Best Solar Street Light Reviews
Introduction to the best solar street lightLed solar street lights are used in most places in the world. If you want to know more about them, check out our video tutorials and find out more about them on their website. We recommend using a professional solar street light if you want to make sure that your home is safe and secure. We also recommend using a battery backup so that you can run your lights at full power.The main part of the project is to improve the design of the building. It is important to note that it is a very small project, so it is difficult to make an accurate estimate of the size of the solar street light. The biggest problem is that the grid does not know the exact location of the sun and how far away it is from the house. Solar street lights are expensive and can be made in many different shapes and sizes. This will make it difficult to find the perfect place to install solar street lights.Led solar street lights can provide enough light to our lives for every day. However, most people are unaware of the importance of using led solar street lights in their homes. There are several types of led solar street lights and you need to be careful when choosing them. If you want to make sure that you have installed the right led solar street lights then it is better to get a quote from a local solar street lights provider.In order to build a better solar street light, we need to have a lot of research about the features of the solar street light. Most of the people are aware of the sun's energy use and how they use it. So, what is the best solar street light? Solar street lights are much more efficient than conventional street lights and you can get their power from your electricity bill by installing a solar street light. A solar street light will be used by any electricity company or any other electric company in the market. You can use it to make sure that the power you use is working properly and not being too noisy.First impression and using experience of the best solar street lightThere are two main types of solar street light. One is that used by local companies, which use electricity to make lamps, while the other is that used by some government agencies. The good thing about these solar street light is that they are designed to be efficient and will not burn as much as a normal bulb. They also have an added benefit of being compact and lightweight. If you want to know more about solar street light then visit www.pairnecodes.com.We are always looking for new ideas to help our customers make informed decisions about their home. The majority of these ideas come from people who have some experience in solar street lighting. If you are interested in buying solar street lights then we recommend reading this blog post about the advantages of buying solar street lights. We will be happy to give you some advice on how to use the best solar street lights.As with any other kind of energy source, it's important to consider what kind of energy source you are using. We all have our own sets of needs and some of them can be controlled by different control methods. One of the most important aspects of solar street lights is that they use an integrated system that allows them to produce a wide range of outputs. This makes them very useful for building more houses, vehicles and many other types of work. If you want to build a house or make an electrical one then it is good to go with a professional company.In this blog, we are going to talk about first impression and using experience of the best solar street light. The good thing about this is that it is simple and clean. When we use the solar street light, we get a picture of the problem that we are solving. If we have some problems then we can fix them by applying a few fixes. This is how we can make sure that we are working in the best way possible.Pros and cons of the best solar street lightThe next blog titled 'Solar Street Lights are great because they don't require batteries. They can be purchased from your local hardware store or at your local post office. Solar street lights are cheap and simple to install and have many benefits. There are a lot of things that you can do to make sure that you get the best solar street lights for your needs. You can use them to add lighting to your home or business and save energy bills.The only problem with solar street lights is that they are really inefficient. There are two main types of solar street lights, but there are also three types of solar street lights. The first type of solar street lights is called an indirect solar street light. They use a separate halogen bulb to illuminate the street, but use a more efficient LED bulb that can be adjusted to turn on or off in an appropriate manner. This type of solar street lights are usually controlled by a button on the lamp's control panel.Most of the people in the world are using solar street lights to make homes. They are not only powerful, but they are also lightweight. A good solar street light is built to last for years and has an excellent safety feature. There are many different types of solar street lights, but they all come with some common features. For example, a solar street light can be powered by a battery or by a battery charger. If you want to have a home that is just as comfortable as you would be able to use your own power source, then a solar street light is the way to go.This article will show you how to install a solar street light in your home. A good solar street light is one that can make your home feel a lot more welcoming and safe. The most important thing to consider is that it is an investment that will last you a long time. It is also one of the most cost effective ways to save money on your utility bills. You should know the kind of solar street light you want before you buy it.Overall evaluation of the best solar street lightIt is always nice to see how much we can improve on our last report. It is very important to make sure that we do not get wrong and we need to take into account our personal opinions. I want to take this opportunity to tell you about my experience with solar street light and how it has helped me understand the different types of solar street light and how they work. This article will help you understand the different types of solar street light and how they work.If you have been looking for a reliable solar street light then you should look at the impact of solar street light on your lifestyle. If you are planning to buy a solar street light then you should go for a better option. It is very important to choose the best solar street light that is available in the market. This will give you a better view of the current market and how much it will cost. You should also check if the solar street light has any battery power source.The system we use today is far more powerful than any device we have today. The main problem with using solar street lights is that they do not produce enough light to last for long periods of time. We have to replace them every five years or so. This means that if we don't replace them every year then they will only be running for a few years. Solar street lights are really nice because they are easy to install and use. They also have some built-in cameras that can record images on them.In general, we can say that the overall system performance of solar street lights is better than in general. For example, if you are planning to build a home or have an emergency service call 911, then it is important to use a single bulb and replace it every two years. This will save you a lot of money in the long run. However, there are some other factors that affect the overall system performance. The most important thing is to know what kind of bulb you are using and what kind of bulb you are using.
IGBT of Fuji Motor Electronic Equipment Technology
IGBT of Fuji Motor Electronic Equipment Technology
The IGBT technology of Fuji motor and electronic equipment technology has been commercialized since 1988 and has been supplied in the market so far. Figure 1-3 shows the development process and application technology of IGBT products from the first generation to the fifth generation. Epitaxial wafers are used in the first to third generation IGBT, and the characteristics are improved by optimizing life cycle control and refinement technology of IGBT. Then, the fourth and fifth generation products have achieved significant characteristic improvement through the transition from epitaxial wafer to FZ (floating zone) wafer. In this regard, the design policy of IGBT has changed greatly compared with the past.Firstly, the basic design idea of IGBT using epitaxial wafer (series products up to 600V of the third to fourth generation, called "breakdown type") is as follows. In order to realize the low-pass state voltage during IGBT conduction, a large number of carriers are injected from the collector side to fill the IGBT with high concentration carriers. In addition, the n-buffer layer specially set to maintain the high voltage forms a very thin n-layer, so as to realize the low-pass state voltage. In order to realize fast exchange, life cycle control technology aiming at the rapid disappearance of carriers filled in IGBT is also adopted (through these, low exchange loss (eoff) can also be realized). However, once the life cycle control technology is applied, even in the normal on state, due to the effect of this technology (the carrier transport efficiency decreases), there is a problem of increasing the on state voltage, which can be solved by further high carrier injection.In short, the basic design concept of IGBT using epitaxial wafer technology can be simply summarized as "high injection and low transmission efficiency". In contrast, IGBTs using FZ wafers (series after the fourth generation 1200V) adopt a reverse basic design to inhibit the injection of carriers from the collector side and improve the transmission efficiency by reducing the injection efficiency. In the above-mentioned design concept of IGBT using epitaxial wafer "high injection and low transmission efficiency", the carriers that are not easy to be injected are forcibly suppressed through the control of life cycle, which not only limits the improvement of characteristics, but also increases the standard deviation of on-state voltage characteristics through the control of life cycle, It is very disadvantageous to the large capacity required for parallel use with increasing requirements in recent years. The technology developed to overcome this problem is a new IGBT using FZ chip (NPT: non punch through (used from the fourth generation IGBT) / FS: field stop (used from the fifth generation IGBT) - IGBT). The IGBT does not adopt life cycle control. Its basic design idea is to control the impurity concentration of the collector (P layer), so as to inhibit the carrier injection efficiency. However, in order to realize the characteristics superior to the IGBT using epitaxial wafer, it is also required to realize more than one hundred for the 1200V high voltage resistant series IGBT μ M (the thickness of n-layer in NPT and fs-igbt using FZ wafer ≈ the thickness of chip (wafer). The thinner the thickness, the lower the on state voltage can be generated). In short, it is not too much to call the development of IGBT using FZ chip a challenge to chip thickness.Fuji electric and electronic equipment technology has solved these problems. Starting from the fourth generation 1200V series - IGBT, it has realized the commercialization of "s series" constructed by FZ chip NPT. In addition, 600V series technology with higher thickness requirements is further developed, and 600v-u2 series (fifth generation) is being commercialized. In addition, in 1200V series - the fifth generation "U Series", in order to improve the performance better than s series, NPT structure has been changed to FS structure.The so-called FS structure does not use the life cycle control technology. While following the basic design concept of "low injection and high transport efficiency" of carriers, an n buffer layer to maintain voltage is set on the FZ wafer, so as to realize the IGBT structure thinner than the NPT structure. Through this change, 1200v-u series realizes the low on state voltage characteristic better than s series, and completes its commercialization. In addition, this technology is also used in 1700V series high voltage withstand series, and is also starting to be commercialized.Figure 1-3 changes of Fuji motor electronic equipment IGBT application technologyIn addition, Fuji electric and electronic equipment technology is also refining the surface structure indispensable for the improvement of IGBT characteristics (IGBT is formed by multiple IGBT plates. Through refinement, the more plates, the more low on-state voltage can be realized). Up to the fourth generation products, the planar structure (the structure of planar IGBT) has been used to promote refinement, so as to improve the characteristics. However, starting from the fifth generation products - 1200 and 1700V series, the grooved IGBT technology slotted on the Si surface and constituting IGBT has broken the subtle technical barrier and achieved unprecedented characteristic improvement. Figure 1-4 shows the change of characteristic improvement of 1200V series.Figure 1-4 improvement of balance characteristics
Is a Metal Roof Right for You | Billy
Is a Metal Roof Right for You | Billy
Is a Metal Roof Right for You | BillyMetal roofs, first popularized in the 19th century, have enjoyed a long history in American culture, and are now enjoying a resurgence in home building and restoration due to the growing popularity of both industrial and farmhouse styles. Tin roofs were commonly used for homes and barns in the south and are still fairly common in states like Ohio, but these have been replaced by milled steel and more modern materials. Modern metal roofing comes in several gauges and a variety of finishes and styles to complement your house and yard. Exposed and hidden fastener roofs are available with seamless standing (hidden) being a favorite among architects. Seamed roofs require visible grommet screws , whereas the seamless-style roofs involve a different type of concealed-fasterner installation. Standing seamless roofs generally have more robust trim. Traditionally, metal roofs consisted of vertically oriented panels with vertical seams. Modern technology had yielded an abundance of other profiles, many mimicking other roofing types. Read on for more information. Early American metal roofs were often painted for preservation and new roofing improves upon that with durable powder-coated and other advanced finishes. A range of metallic finishes are available to mimic metals such as copper and galvanized metal. A "traditional" red oxide complements barns and imparts a rustic look to older buildings or even newer homes. Imagine a square schoolhouse with a stark barn red roof. Grays, blues and certain greens are also manufactured with hunter-type greens pairing well with cabins and other rustic homes. If you like old-fashioned, galvanized roofing, there is a zinc and aluminum-impregnated panel called galvalume that offers great longevity and an attractive sheen. Note that galvalume is a different process than painting and usually has a slightly different warranty. While traditional shingles only come in subdued colors, painted metal finishes are available in vivid primary and secondary colors, making them ideal for the modern and adventurous. These tough finishes generally come with a warranty that ranges from 25-40 years. Ask your contractor for samples or order some online from manufacturers. There are a lot of profiles available for metal roofs from more architectural, flat-ribbed modern types to more classic, simple rib styles like those found on barns (and in the old rural South). If you can get a contractor to bring larger samples and see them on top of your roof, it becomes much easier for you to visualize your roof job. It's possible that a modern standing seam roof will make a nice contrast to an older farm or that a more traditional style will add some excitement to a newer home. Do not be afraid to get experimental. Along with vertically-oriented roofs, shake, tile and shingle-style metal roofs are gaining popularity in the construction field. Clay tile roofs are difficult to replace, and modern roofing materials are frequently being used on historic buildings (where historic preservation is not an issue). These metal styles are also useful for additions as they can provide contrast to other building materials for a melding of styles or postmodern appearance. Metal roofing materials are, in fact, candy for architects and other designers as they search for new architectural expressions. Metal roofing is not limited to interiors either. You will find them used creatively in home (and business) interiors as ceilings (check the indoor rating), as partial walls, and for components of industrial-style furniture. One of the big advantages of a metal roof is that it has a much greater life expectancy than a shingle roof. The metal itself can last 50-100 years-way beyond any asphalt shingle (with a 10-15-year average life expectancy). However, the paint finishes are rated for fewer years (30-45-still a great warranty) and you may decide you have to repaint your roof after 30 or 40 years. If that is the case, there are good paints available for painting metal, as well as technicians who know how to prep and paint it. That said, metal will still outlast any asphalt shingle. Metal roofs generally cost more than shingle ones, however, the long-term value, as stated above is much greater, making the overall expense less. Also, the cost of a metal roof varies from state to state. Generally, there are more contractors skilled in metal roof installation in states such as Ohio where they are more common. Be sure to get multiple quotes if you are considering a metal roof. Screwed roofs are less expensive than standing seam but, as previously mentioned, may mean you need to have it inspected for loose fasteners on occasion. The cost for roofs varies so much, that you will really need to get estimates from local contractors to determine if a metal roof is right for you. Standing seam roofing generally has prominent ribs and interlocking, hidden-clip-fastened seams and the fastening system and trim are completely different than those of the screw-in type (the latter found commonly on barns). There are reasons you might choose one or the other, however. Obviously, if you want clean lines with no exposed fasteners, standing seam is for you. Standing seam roofs tend to show imperfections and may appear wavy or reflect light that accentuates those imperfections, or even waviness in the roofing itself. An old roof with a lot of sagging will highlight this aspect. Corrugated roofing or most visible-screw types of roofing may better conceal imperfections. The gauge of the metal also impacts how well the roofing conceals the underlying structure. If you are looking for a more industrial look, you might appreciate the exposed fasteners on the screw-fastened sheets. Exposed screw roofs are generally less costly than standing seam but when installed properly, both are good options for your home. Metal roofs come in several gauges, 29, 26 and 24, with the higher numbers being the thinnest material, and the lowest number being the most durable. Make sure you know the recommendations for residential applications before signing a contract with a roofer. 29 gauge may be used for most residential applications, but for severe weather areas, 24 might be better. Some professionals recommend 26 gauge for homes and 29 for barns and other outbuildings. There may be local code requirements as well. One way that a contractor might cut corners is by using a really thin-gauge metal on your home. The most practical advantage is that you likely will not have to replace a metal roof in your lifetime, provided you are happy with the color and paint. If you tire of it, you, of course, can have it painted, which should not be a huge expense. Shingles, on the other hand, need replacing every 15 years or so. Even the newer dimensional shingles are still going to require replacing and maintenance. Most people with asphalt shingles have, at one time or another, had them blow off in a storm. A metal roof can occasionally suffer from storm damage in hail or really high winds, but not to the same extent as asphalt shingles. Some insurance companies even give you a break if you install a metal roof (this is not likely in coastal areas, however). Chalking and fading may be an issue for metal roofs down the road. However, there are government standards for acceptable fade amounts which can usually be found on the manufacturer's website. This refers back to the issue of painting. Metal roofs are faster to install, depending on the skill of contractor. Need a roof fast? Do you have severe storm damage? Metal might for you then, provided it appeals to you aesthetically and you can find skilled tradespeople in your area. Metal roofs are much lighter than shingles, meaning less stress on the roofing structure (and the workers). If you are building from scratch, or using for a garage or shed, the requirement for supports may be reduced. Check your local building codes for more information. As previously mentioned, metal roofs are more cost effective than shingle ones in the long term, given the lower life expectancy of shingled roofs. The best way to calculate cost effectiveness is to get some actual quotes from roofers with the knowledge that many roofers will try to talk you out of a metal roof for the simple reason they do not know how to install them. It is a specialty skill and, depending on your location, there may not be many installers. For many homeowners, some of the decision will boil down to aesthetics. People tend to either really like or really hate the appearance. Be sure to ask yourself the following: • Will I love this roof and its color in 20 years? • Will I keep this home or sell it? • Are there any other governing bodies or local codes I need to be aware of before installing? One of the biggest concerns you read about metal roofs is if they are noisy. People might claim the pinging keeps them awake. Conversely, some describe the noise as romantic. Installed over roofing underlayment (plywood), a metal roof is not going to have the same acoustics as, say, a barn with no underlayment, which can be extremely loud when it rains. If this is a concern, you can request a thin layer of foam insulation placed over the existing roof (and beneath the metal roof panels), as it dampens the sound. Foam insulation will also reduce the imperfections that might show through the roof (especially on standing seam, non-corrugated roofing). A huge advantage to metal roofs, and one that you seldom see referenced online, is how well they hold up to snow. While standing snow on asphalt can cause damage and leaking (thus the need for roof snow rakes), metal roof owners will be pleased when, as the sun heats the roof up, they hear the whoosh of a small avalanche as the snow slides off the house onto the ground. Of course, you will probably want to remove this snow from around your foundation, but it beats having to rake it off. Because metal is not combustible, many metal roofs have a really high fire rating (class A). Of course, the materials used beneath the roof also impact the rating. For instance, if you did not tear off the asphalt shingles before installing the metal, they would be included in your combined fire rating. Metal, unlike wood or asphalt shingles, is resistant to mold, rotting and insect infestations. As long as it's properly installed, it should last as long as your house. A variety of paint finishes are available, from subdued neutrals, to metallic copper, to bright primary colored paints, making it versatile for both historic and modern homes. The long-term cost beats most other roofing materials, making it a good roof for the long-term home owner. If you buy a metal roof, buy it because you love it, as you are the one who is going to be enjoying it each time you pull in your driveway or spend time outside. For roofing quotes, please go to our free quotes tool for easy access to multiple contractors in your area. *All photos courtesy of courtesy of Classic Metal Roofing Systems.
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