Magna, GM Collaborate on Electric Equinox Test Fleet

Magna International engineers are testing how well the popular Chevrolet Equinox crossover might perform if it were powered completely by an electric motor.A fleet of nine demonstration vehicles has been retrofitted with electronic components from Magna E-Car Systems, a division of Magna International of Aurora, the company said Thursday.Over the next two years, specially-trained personnel are to drive the GTA's streets and highways, said Magna E-Car chief engineer and program manager Jim Parrott, who drove a new red electric Equinox 70 kilometres for the announcement, from Magna's Aurora headquarters to its plant in Vaughan."I'll be driving it back again and expect to have a 10 per cent charge left," he said of the vehicle's current 150-kilometre single charge range. "(That's) commuting distance," he added.Magna is to test three of the vehicles out of Aurora, GM the other six out of Oshawa, Parrott said.Most electric cars tend to be small. The Nissan Leaf has been out for about a year. An electric Ford Focus launches in the New York and California markets next month.GM has the Chevrolet Volt and Opel Ampera electric vehicles, with a range of up to 580 kilometres on one charge.With the testing of these Equinox prototypes, the electric motor leaps into a whole new category - a sports utility vehicle or what GM often calls a "crossover" SUV on a passenger car body.GM wants to see if such a heavy vehicle can be added to its electric offerings."The demonstration project is the latest example of GM's commitment to broaden our vehicle electrification technology expertise," GM engineering director Matthew Crossley said in a release.Magna, said Parrott, "wants to understand how our components work" in the larger vehicle.Among other Magna E-Car Systems components, the demonstration models are fitted with an electric motor generating up to 105 kilowatts and a 33 kilowatt/hour battery pack fitted into the undercarriage.

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How Is an Electric Motor Conversion Kit Patent Eligible?
How Is an Electric Motor Conversion Kit Patent Eligible?
What is patented is defined by the claims. In this case there is only one claim (below). One thing to remember about claims. Long complicated claims where there are a lot of specifics are usually narrow and thus easily circumvented. Short claims are generally broader. In this case, there is a very long claim with many specifics. I am not sure why the examiner found this patent sufficiently novel, but I would say as an engineer, it should be trivial to engineer around this patent.An internal combustion engine to electric motor conversion kit system for supporting vehicle components in operative proximity to an electric direct/alternating current motor and for powering such supported vehicle components from the electric direct/alternating current motor, the supporting and powering being done in a safe, ecological, convenient and economical manner, the system comprising, in combination: a vehicle having a plurality of wheels and an operator controlled region,the electric direct/alternating current motor being within the vehicle, the electric direct/alternating current motor having a forward end and a rearward end and a cylindrical side wall, the electric direct/alternating current motor having a central shaft, the central shaft having a rearward section within the electric direct/alternating current motor and a forward section extending forward of the electric direct/alternating current motor, the central shaft being rotatable about a horizontal axis;a support assembly for retaining the electric direct/alternating current motor in an operative position, the support assembly including a central motor support and side motor supports, the motor mounts, the motor mounts coupling the central and side motor supports to the vehicle, the support assembly also including two vertically extending lateral brackets coupling the side wall of the electric direct/alternating current motor to the central motor support; a primary bracket formed with a vertically oriented first section removably coupled to the forward end of the electric direct/alternating current motor, the primary bracket formed with a vertically oriented second section rearwardly of and above the first section, the primary bracket formed with a third section perpendicular to and joining the first and second sections, an aperture in the first section in a key-hole shape for the passage of wires and the central shaft; vehicle components including at least one alternator and at least one air conditioning compressor and at least one power steering pump, the vehicle components being rotatably coupled to the second section of the primary bracket;a motion imparting assembly for driving the vehicle components, the motion imparting assembly including at least one drive pulley secured to and rotatable with the central shaft, the motion imparting assembly also including at least one driven pulley on the at least one alternator, at least one driven pulley on the at least one air conditioning compressor, and at least one driven pulley on the at least one power steering pump, the motion imparting assembly also including at least one idler pulley and at least one tensioning pulley, the motion imparting assembly also including at least one belt movable in a vertical plane and operatively coupling the at least one drive pulley and the at least one driven pulleys and the at least one idler and tensioning pulleys; a supplemental bracket secured to the second section of the primary bracket at an elevation above the third section, cable lines mounted on the supplemental bracket to increase and decrease the speed of the electric direct/alternating current motor and the vehicle; a radiator and a cooling fan, the radiator and cooling fan being positioned forward of the electric direct/alternating current motor to facilitate cooling of the electric direct/alternating current motor and the vehicle components; and a battery pack and controller in the vehicle for powering and controlling the electric direct/alternating current motor.1. how did michael faraday inventor of the electric motor change mankind?Electric motors transform electrical energy into mechanical energy the same way a steam engine transformed heat energy into mechanical energy. The source of the electrical energy was heat, but the electrical generator could be many miles from the electric motor. This was impractical with a steam engine if the steam had to travel very far through pipes. It made it possible to use mechanical energy in places where a boiler would be impractical. Electric motors could also be very small unlike steam engines which had to be at least the size of a car before they were mechanically efficient. Electric motors could also do something impossible to do with a steam engine. If mechanical energy was sent back through an electric motor it is transformed into electricity. This is the basis of electrical generators. It would be absolutely impossible to turn the wheels of a steam engine and generate coal.2. How can i increase the eficency of a Dc electric motor?Interesting reasoning, but there is one possible problem, and that would depend on the length of the race. If the capacitor is discharged at the beginning, then the solar panel is going to expend its energy charging the cap, rather than powering the motor. Once you get to steady speed, the motor with the capacitor may go faster by a tiny bit. Fair rules would suggest that you wo not be allowed to charge the capacitor beforehand. If you have an oscilloscope at your disposal, then I would look at the waveform of the current draw of the motor, when powered by the solar panel. You could then experiment with different size caps to see the power curve at startup, and steady state. Or, just determine which is best, if any, by running the car down the designated course length while timing it.3. Anyone know where I could get an RC electric motor with the following torque and RPM capabilities??...?Try rcuniverse.com or hobbyking.com but you would better check your specs. 100 rpm is VERY SLOW, and unsuitable for directly driving an aircraft propellor 50Nm is VERY HIGH torque. Both of these specs suggest an integrated gearbox with the motor, but then you would have to add a second gearbox to step the speed up again... Perhaps the "100 rpm" is actually the kv figure. That means rpm per Volt applied. If so, it's still a VERY LOW kv figure. kv figures above 250, and up to 3000 or so, are common. It might help if you give more details of your aircraft model. Maybe it's quite large...
A Consumer Guide to Electric Cars
A Consumer Guide to Electric Cars
Electric vehicle (EV) is a classification that primarily covers three different types of vehicles: battery electric vehicle (BEV), hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). All of these vehicle types feature batteries and electric motors, which can independently propel the vehicle using electricity.EVs have automatic transmissions, rather than manual, making them easy to drive, especially in stop-and-go city driving. The EV is quiet to drive and can accelerate fast, a characteristic of the electric motor. An amazing feature of an EV is regenerative braking- the electrics can slow down the car and recharge the battery rather than use the brakes!The following manufacturers sell EVs in Ireland: , , , , , , ,, , , , , , , , , and .The BEV is an EV featuring a large battery and no other energy source. Examples of these cars are the and . BEVs are available from BMW, Citroen, Hyundai, Jaguar, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Renault, Tesla and Volkswagen.The kilowatt-hour (kWh) is the unit of measure of battery size. Each unit can result in about three or six km of driving for a typical BEV. The typical BEV on sale in Ireland now comes with a battery pack sized from 28 to 40 kWh, while the luxury cars from Tesla are from 75 to 100 kWh.I like to use published by the (EPA) in the United States, as these figures provide the best estimate of range.The published range of the 40 kWh Nissan Leaf is about 243 km (151 miles). The typical Irish driver travels about 50 km a day. Thus, the 40 kWh BEV has close to fivedays' range in the battery on good driving days.This range will drop by approximately 20 percentas the battery ages over the eightyears for which it is guaranteed. A further drop in range of about 30 percentcan be expected due to the use of heating, air-conditioning or defrosting on very hot or very cold days. Thus, the range in several years' time could be as low as 136 km in adverse weather conditions. However, that is close to threedays driving for the typical driver. Driving aggressively, driving up and down hills and carrying heavy loads will also reduce the range. So drive less, lighten up and slow down if you want to maximise the range.The battery is unlikely to last for the full life of the car. The batteries are typically guaranteed for eight years while the typical car can last for 12 to 16 years or more. A relatively expensive battery replacement may be required. On the positive side, the Irish climate is benign to batteries due to the mild temperatures.Range aside, the BEV comes with some great benefits. It emits zero pollution at the point of use. It is powered solely by electricity, which has significant indigenous fuel sources such asrenewable wind power and Irish peat and natural gas.Because of these factors, the BEV is highly subsidised and incentivised by the Irish government. The fuel to the driver is relatively cheap as our electricity is taxed far more lightly than petrol and diesel. The cars can carry lower tolls and can have special access to parking spaces for charging. The government recently introduced a zero benefit-in-kind (BIK) tax rate for employees when a company provides an employee with a BEV. This can result in significant savings for the employee.The car can be recharged at home in around two to three hours after a typical drive. A full recharge will take several hours, while a fast charge will take 30 minutes. , I usually caution potential buyers to try and charge at home. It can be very stressful to get to a public charging point and find that the charger is not working or that a car is already parked there. A BEV is problematic for apartment dwellers who do not have access to a dedicated charging facility.I also only recommend high-power or fast charging on a very limited basis, as regular fast charging is not good for the life of the battery. Some cars will not accept more than one high-power charge in a day as the battery can overheat, making long-distance driving quite challenging.A growing phenomenon is that some BEV and PHEV buyers are installing wind and solar electricity generators at home to chargecars using their own renewable energy. The HEV features two energy sources: a battery with an electric motor combining with a high-efficiency petrol engine. Examples are the , the , the and the .Conventional petrol and diesel cars are very inefficient. Only about 20 percentof the energy stored in the petrol or diesel fuel results in motion of the car. Most of the rest of the energy is simply lost as heat. The battery and the electrical system enable the engine to run in the most efficient mode. The car can drive quietly in electric mode for several km when it is inefficient to use the engine. The fuel economy of a HEV is about 50 percentgreater than that of a conventional petrol car.The PHEV is a HEV with a larger battery, with a 20 to 50 km range, and which can be plugged in and recharged like a BEV. Examples are the , and , with other models from Audi, BMW, Hyundai, Kia, Land Rover, Mercedes, Porsche and Volkswagen. The disadvantage of the PHEV is the relative cost.The use of diesel engines with their emissions of particulate matter (soot) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in our cities and towns can result in increased urban pollution and smog, and serious health issues such as cancers and respiratory illnesses. However, diesel fuel is still incentivised by the government for various reasons making it appear as a cost-effective option despite the environmental impact.While HEVs are powered by petrol, BEVs are indirectly powered by natural gas, coal and peat. Significant environmental concerns additionally remain for batteries related to the energy and carbon intensity of manufacturing, to the recyclability, and to the sourcing of key materials. Thus, in the medium term in Ireland, I view the environmental impacts as being comparable between the BEVs and HEVs. In the long term, we will see more renewable wind and solar supplying the electrical grid, which will benefit BEVs.Let's look at some case studies. Remember that smaller cars are better overall for the environment and finances and larger cars can require a lot more energy and generate a lot more carbon both to manufacture and to drive. Please note that while the costs of the cars may be prohibitive for many families, used cars and lower-cost imports are an option.Deirdre lives in the suburbs and drives 50 km return to work each day. She has access to a second car in case of a long drive.Deirdre will find the BEV a very attractive option, e.g. retails at about €29,590 after subsidies. There are goodies, such as cheap night-time electricity, reduced toll charges, and special access to parking for charging. Renting a bigger vehicle is also an option for longer drives.Maura and Seamus live in the country and typically only drive several kilometresa day. However, once a week, Maura drives to visit her sister 100 km away, while Seamus travels to GAA matches around the county.Here, I would recommend a HEV and asmaller HEV might suit them. There is no range limitation and it will be quite cost effective. The retails for €19,850.Stephen can spend several hours a day in his car and typically drives a diesel due to fuel economy.I recommend a HEV or PHEV for Stephen. The starts at €31,450, the HEV at €36,920 and the at €39,900.Options for people-carrier EVs are very limited at present. The family may want to consider the HEV or the large PHEV if the budget permits. A BEV could even be a first car, while the HEV or PHEV can be the second car.Tom drives medical staff as part of a night-time service for urgent medical needs. Given the emergency nature of Tom's job, I would suggest a HEV or PHEV so that he is not worried about range.Mary runs a company in the greater Dublin area andis happy to trade in her company car, which is currently a large luxury diesel SUV. She can consider a luxury BEV, such as a Tesla or Jaguar. The zero BIK tax rate will sweeten the drive and have her travel in style! The retails at €105,940.
Clean Opg Electricity a Key to Fuelling the Ev Revolution
Clean Opg Electricity a Key to Fuelling the Ev Revolution
Why is it the right time to make electrification of our transportation systems a priority in Ontario?Over the past 10 years, OPG has virtually eliminated greenhouse gas (GHG) and smog-causing emissions from its power generation by shutting down its coal plants, investing in and preserving our nuclear generation assets, expanding our hydroelectric fleet, and establishing a good mix of renewable and gas generation. Our transition to a diverse and clean generation portfolio has reduced the carbon intensity in Ontario’s power system by 82 per cent, resulting in clean, smog-free air for all Ontarians.Meanwhile, the transportation sector remains the largest emitter of GHGs in the province, accounting for approximately 35 per cent of current emissions. With national climate change commitments moving many auto manufacturers toward electrification, now is the right time for Ontario and OPG to mobilize our clean electricity to help decarbonize the transportation sector. Just as coal closure was a major action in the fight against climate change, electrifying transportation with Ontario’s clean energy is emerging as a path to a cost-effective, low-carbon future.With that said, we must act now to prepare for the not-so-distant future when millions of electric vehicles (EVs) will be on our roads. OPG forecasts that 25 to 45 per cent of electricity demand growth over the next 20 years could be driven by EVs. We want to maintain and grow the amount of low-carbon-intensity energy we produce to meet this demand, as well as demand from other rapidly changing industries. Transportation electrification will create new economic opportunities both for auto manufacturers and electricity producers, and OPG is poised to play a leading role.What kind of leadership role does OPG wish to take in the movement towards electricity-powered transportation?OPG has long played a key role in supporting EVs — we founded the Plug’n Drive consumer awareness and advocacy group, and partnered with GM to help launch its Chevrolet Volt. We want to continue to lead in advocating for EVs and delivering the clean electricity that will help transform transportation in Ontario.Electrifying the transportation sector would boost electricity demand in the long term, help lower electricity prices by spreading fixed costs out over larger demand, and reduce carbon emissions – all good things for Ontarians. To that end, we want to be at the forefront of adoption and innovation to position ourselves as a leader in this rapidly evolving sector. Part of this is raising public awareness of the many environmental and cost-savings benefits associated with electric vehicles. OPG is also exploring opportunities to electrify transportation more broadly across Ontario in a number of key areas, including personal vehicles, fleet vehicles, school buses and cargo/trucking, and we will be studying the impact this shift will have on the electricity system.How does OPG’s electrification strategy touch on your own employees, vehicles and infrastructure?We recognize that we need to start changing mindsets and habits internally if we want to lead outside the company. We’re taking a number of actions within the company to spur employee adoption of EVs and prepare for transportation electrification. This includes transitioning our fleet of 250 cars, SUVs and minivans by replacing gas-powered vehicles with EVs, where feasible.We’re also working on a pilot project to test electric boats in our hydroelectric operations, and we’ll soon be piloting electric pickup trucks. In 2017, we installed 32 EV charging spots for employees and visitors at a number of OPG sites. By the end of 2018, we’ll have a minimum of 50 charging spots available through OPG’s workplace charging program.Where do you see the most promising opportunities in innovation in electric mobility, and what role does OPG wish to play in driving innovation?We are currently investigating vehicle-grid integration as an area that will help us manage the electricity demand from EVs, such that we optimize the use of clean baseload power to maximize the reduction of GHGs and reduce the per unit cost of electricity. Vehicle-grid integration allows for a bi-directional flow of power between EVs and the grid. In this scenario, OPG would have access to vehicle batteries and have the ability to aggregate these batteries to feed the residual power back into the grid during times of peak demand.We are also looking into what happens with EV batteries after they’ve completed their life cycle under the hood. Could there be a way we can combine thousands of these used batteries to store electricity? It’s a novel idea that could reduce waste and offer a method to store energy in off-peak times.Can you describe any partnerships in the area of electric mobility and why they are valuable?We’re very proud to have established Plug’n Drive – a non-profit organization that promotes EVs and their environmental and economic benefits. We continue to support Plug’n Drive through the sponsorship of its newly opened Electric Vehicle Discovery Centre in Toronto. It’s the world’s first experiential EV hub, where consumers can test drive EVs and learn about batteries and charging, and it’s completely free.On an operational level, OPG is working closely with EV charger providers and businesses to help in the transition of our vehicle fleet to electric, grow Ontario’s charging network and look for innovative ways to increase adoption of EVs. We’re also looking to work with auto manufacturers and other businesses as we explore commercial business opportunities around transportation electrification.What are the potential challenges that our communities could face in the transition to electrified transportation?One of the biggest challenges will be educating Ontarians about good charging habits to help manage the demand from millions of EVs drawing power from the grid. Our forecasts show that EVs can lead to a four per cent decrease in residential electricity commodity cost by 2037, if charging is focused overnight. This is the time when electricity demand is lowest and, in the near term, can make use of surplus electricity. Charging when it’s convenient, however, like at peak times when residents arrive home from work, could result in much more limited cost and emissions savings.This is why educating the public and encouraging good charging habits early on is so important. It will go a long way to ensuring our existing clean electricity system will be able to reliably serve EVs and other new demands in the future. Vehicle-grid integration initiatives will also play an important role in helping to balance this new load on the system.In the short-term, though, we have to acknowledge that not everybody is able to charge at home overnight. Other challenges include opening up access to EVs in remote areas and ensuring proper charging infrastructure in condos.How do hydrogen electric vehicles fit into OPG’s transportation electrification strategy?We’re actively exploring opportunities related to both battery EVs as well as hydrogen fuel cell EVs. This latter technology could potentially be a better option for specific applications such as rail or long-haul trucks.Like battery EVs, hydrogen-fuelled EVs promise to help reduce emissions. These vehicles convert hydrogen gas into electricity to power an electric motor, producing only water and heat as byproducts, with no tailpipe emissions. But the production of the hydrogen gas itself can include GHGs, depending on the production method. Most hydrogen currently produced in Ontario comes from steam methane reforming, which produces GHGs. The alternative is producing hydrogen via electrolysis of water using OPG’s clean electricity, which would maximize greenhouse gas reductions.This is the foundation of OPG’s transportation electrification strategy — to use our largely emission-free power to decarbonize the entire transportation sector.
Force to Start Moving a Car
The car engine must run at a minimum of approximately 750 rpm to remain running. This means that you can't easily get the car moving in high gear because the low starting torque in that gear would stall the engine. If you want to test this out, learn how to drive a standard transmission, and from rest, release the clutch when the transmission is in the highest gear. You will find that the engine stalls when you do this.Regarding the force involved, this question can't be answered in a simple fashion. According to Newton's 2nd law, $aF/m$, so a smaller force will give a smaller acceleration. It's more meaningful to talk about the amount of work involved to change the car's velocity by a given amount. The work/kinetic-energy theorem states that the amount of work involved is equal to the change in kinetic energy, assuming no dissipative forces (e.g., friction) are involved. Under this assumption, it is obvious that there is a larger change in kinetic energy, and hence more work involved, in going from 40 mph to 45 mph than there is in going from rest to 5 mph.I have 2 related questions, the second one is more engineering than physics, but it relies on the first.Does it take more force to get a car to start moving than to accelerate it the same amount while it is already moving?For example, to get it from 0 to 5 mph vs 40 to 45 mph.I ask this because the gear ratio of car gears is higher for low gears. This does two things, it increases the torque (and wheel force) in lower gears and increases the rpm's of the engine for lower wheel speeds.Is the only reason high gear ratios are used for lower gears to raise the engine rpm's from the wheel rpm's (because engine speed wants to be around 2-4000), or is it because you need that additional torque to get the car to start moving.·OTHER ANSWER:I have 2 related questions, the second one is more engineering than physics, but it relies on the first.Does it take more force to get a car to start moving than to accelerate it the same amount while it is already moving?For example, to get it from 0 to 5 mph vs 40 to 45 mph.I ask this because the gear ratio of car gears is higher for low gears. This does two things, it increases the torque (and wheel force) in lower gears and increases the rpm's of the engine for lower wheel speeds.Is the only reason high gear ratios are used for lower gears to raise the engine rpm's from the wheel rpm's (because engine speed wants to be around 2-4000), or is it because you need that additional torque to get the car to start moving.
Does It Make Sense to Buy Lexus ES300h?
Lexus has finally and officially entered the Indian car market.The ES300h is the most affordable sedan and the second most affordable car in the Japanese carmaker's line-up after the NX crossover.The ES300h is based on the Toyota Camry and shares its underpinnings and the powertrain with the latter.In terms of the exterior design, the Lexus ES300h gets all the signature Lexus design elements like the spindle-shaped grille, L-shaped LED DRLs and fog lamps housing and L-shaped graphics inside the tail-lights.The sedan runs on 17-inch alloy wheels and overall it looks quite quirky from the front and a proper business-class car from the rear.Get inside the cabin of the Lexus ES300h and an ergonomically designed dashboard with premium quality materials welcome you.The 3-spoke leather-wrapped steering wheel gets a plethora of buttons and the two-pod instrument cluster houses a small MID display in between.The screen for the infotainment takes centre stage which can be operated via a knob on the centre console. No, the unit isn't a touchscreen.In terms of features, the ES300h gets leather upholstery, 3-zone automatic climate control, 10-way power adjustable front seats, Mark Levinson Premium Surround Sound system, Ambient Lighting, rear-view camera with dynamic guidelines, electric moonroof and cruise control.The aircon vents have been neatly tucked in between the infotainment system and the centre console buttons.There is also a small analog clock in between the AC vents.The front and rear seats are uber comfortable and offer good support and comfort.At the rear, there is good knee room and headroom.Under-thigh support and lower back support is good as well.Powering the Lexus ES300h is a 2.5-litre petrol engine mated to an electric motor.Combined power output from the engine and the electric motor is 202 HP of power and 213 Nm of torque.Turn on the ignition and the first thing you will notice is how refined and quiet this car is.Power is dished out in a linear manner and the engine doesn't love to revved hard.The powerplant gets vocal at higher RPMs but NVH levels are well contained.The hybrid powertrain comes mated to an e-CVT transmission.There are three driving modes on offer - Eco, Sport and Normal.Eco cuts off performance and focuses on giving you the best mileage while Sport mode does the exact opposite.There is also a pure EV mode which offers a limited range. Drive the vehicle sedately and it will deliver an overall mileage of 12-13 km/l.In terms of dynamics, the Lexus ES300h slightly disappoints.The steering doesn't weigh up well at higher speeds and the feedback too isn't all that great.However, in Sport mode, things get better. The steering and dampers stiffen up and the ride quality is just superb. The grip from the 215-section tyres are great but braking performance isn't. There is lack of initial bite.Coming to safety features, the ES300h packs in quite a lot. You get 10 airbags, ABS, VSC, ISOFIX child seat mounts and Hill Start Assist.In terms of the after-sales service, the Japanese automaker has a limited reach across the country.At Rs 74 lakh (on-road, Mumbai), the Lexus ES300h offers great space, equipment and good efficiency but there are a host of rivals out there it has to contend with.Buying the sedan makes sense if you really want to do your bit in conserving the environment.
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Source:SuppliedCall it boring, call it predictable or call it a fleet favourite, Toyota's Camry has been Australia's best-selling mid-sized sedan for more than 20 years for good reason.Camrys have proved reliable, good value, suited to family use and, in hybrid form, truly advanced and frugal. Until weeks ago, they were Australian-made.The eighth-generation Camry hits Toyota showrooms in the next few weeks, meaning there should be a glut of good value seventh-gen Camrys hitting the used market. We'll look at the current generation from December 2011 to the mid-2015 makeover.This brought fresher design, a new four-cylinder engine with more power yet better fuel economy, a quieter and more spacious cabin and a chassis and steering package to up the driver enjoyment.Four grades - Altise, Atara S, Atara SX and Atara SL - shared the 2.5-litre and six-speed auto gearbox, with the Ataras tuned for slightly higher outputs.2012 Toyota Camry Atara SX sedan.Source:SuppliedSoon after came the Hybrid in entry-level H and highly specified HL grades. Its detuned engine was backed by an electric motor, for a 0-100km/h time of 8.0 seconds - the 2.5s laboured in 9.3 seconds. In the Hybrids, the constantly variable transmission contributed to a claimed 5.2L/100km, eclipsing the 7.8L of the purely petrol examples.Prices started at a reasonable $30,490 for the fleet special Altise. Hybrids started from $34,990; $2000 cheaper than the predecessor.You can buy a used MY2012 Altise from just $10k today, but many have high kilometres and are ex-fleet or rental cars so arguably won't have been as well looked after as private cars. There are hundreds of white ones for sale.The Altise was light-on for standard equipment. Positives were seven airbags, Bluetooth, USB for iPod connectivity, audio controls on the steering wheel and 16-inch alloy wheels (unless the fleet buyer was really stingy and saved $100 by optioning steel wheels).Far better equipped, the Atara S was aimed specifically at private buyers and gained a sports front bumper, fog lights, side skirts, twin exhausts, 17-inch wheels and chrome door handles. Inside were paddle-shifters to change gear, smart entry and smart start, reversing camera, dual- zone aircon, 6.1-inch touchscreen audio and electric driver's seat.2012 SX interior.Source:SuppliedThe Atara SX, the sporty number, had leather-accented interior, sports rear bumper, rear lip spoiler and sports suspension.The Atara SL, meanwhile, was the luxe version with leather trim, woodgrain inserts, JBL audio, seven-inch touchscreen, satnav, digital radio, live traffic updates, blind spot monitor, rear parking sonar, power front seats and more.2012 Toyota Camry range front: Atara SX; rear (L-R): Atara S, Altise and Atara SL.Source:SuppliedHybrids are identified by the blue Toyota badge. The H models had a similar specification to the Atara S, while the flagship HL mainly mirrored the Atara SL.In late 2012 a special edition Atara R gave the Altise sportier body kit and wheels, while undercutting the Atara S on price.In mid-2014 the Camry RZ landed, again cheaper than an Atara S, but featuring moody black body parts and wheels, sport suspension, sports body kit and twin exhausts. Extrovert Camry buyers could have their RZs in Inferno Orange paint.It wasn't until November 2014 that all Camrys gained a rear camera as standard with an upgrade to the audio and touchscreen.The Camry is certainly a conservative choice, but for those seeking a car that cruises in comfort, is fuss-free, spacious and well screwed together, it's hard to fault.Don't be afraid of the Hybrids, a good introduction to such vehicles. The fuel savings, especially if you make plenty of short city traffic journeys, can make a huge difference via the selectable pure electric mode. WHAT TO LOOK OUT FOR2012 Atara SX.Source:SuppliedThere are hundreds of fleet special Altises on the market but aim for an Atara to get the better specification and higher likelihood of it being privately owned.Hybrids tow next to nothing (300kg) and petrol versions are rated to 1200kg. Hybrids also sacrifice 94L of luggage space over the 421L of the petrol cars, due to the battery pack.Pre-July 2012 Camrys were recalled for a fuel hose fix but, as you'd expect with such a modern Toyota, no common faults have been highlighted by owners.Some suggest the Camry's touchscreen and Bluetooth can be sketchy at best and the fuel economy doesn't live up to expectations.Hybrid technology is still relatively new, so there is the added concern hybrid batteries may fail before the full life of the car. Some mechanics may decline (or not be able) to work on them. IAIN SAYS 3.5 STARSThe Camry's a car to buy with your head rather than heart but comfort, space and reliability are key motivators for many shoppers. Shop for an Atara - the SX or RZ if you fancy a bit more sportiness - or embrace the technology and go for a Hybrid, especially for city dwellers. OWNERS SAY2012 Camry Atara SX.Source:Supplied RAY BEEBE: I bought a demo Atara SL in 2012 as I needed a replacement for my old six-cylinder with fold-down rear seat. It is great, with ample power and it tows enough for me. The only thing it has needed is a battery change. ROB SMETHURST: I've owned a 2013 Hybrid since new and I'm happy I went hybrid after some fears. It has been comfortable and quite good on fuel, especially in Brisbane traffic. I like the kit but the interior is a bit cheap when I compare it to newer cars. I'd buy another one. LUKE WOOD: I bought a 2013 Atara S earlier this year as a second family car. As you'd expect from a Toyota it's had no problems, except the fuel use is high for a four-cylinder car. It's comfortable and easy to live with on long journeys though, and was great value for its size. THE EXPERTS SAY2012 Camry Altise interior.Source:SuppliedToyota's 50 Series Camry featured a modern 2.5-litre four-cylinder on its release at the end of 2011, along with a new six-speed automatic transmission, and has proven extremely popular with fleet and taxi buyers.Before its midlife update, the 50 Series sold 83,000 examples in Australia and was exported to the Middle East from the Altona plant, which closed earlier this month. Of the cars sold domestically, 15.7 per cent were the fuel-saving Hybrid versions.On current listings, about half of the conventional and Hybrid models are base-grade variants. It takes 64 days for Camry to turn over on average, but the hybrid models sell sooner.The used value for the base Camry Altise of 2011 ($30,490 new) is $12,650 for a vehicle in good condition that has travelled 15,000km a year.In contrast, the range-topping Camry Atara SL of the same year ($39,990 new) is now valued at about $16,100.The last of the 2015 models before the major change are valued at $17,450 for the Altise and $22,900 for the Atara SL (new prices unchanged since 2011).Camry Hybrids for 2015 are still fetching $20,300 for the base model ($35,490 new) and $23,700 for the high-grade HL spec ($41,490 new).Resale value of the Camry in 2012 is on par with most competitors. However, it slips behind competitors such as Mazda6, Honda Accord Euro, Ford Mondeo and Subaru Liberty approaching 2015.AT A GLANCETOYOTA CAMRY 2011-15PRICE NEW $30,490-$41,490SAFETY 5 starsENGINES 2.5-litre 4-cyl, 133kW/231Nm and 135kW/235Nm; hybrid, 151kW combined/ 213Nm (2.5) plus 270Nm (electric motor)TRANSMISSION6-speed auto or CVT; FWDTHIRST 5.2L-7.8L/100km
Would 1990 JEEP Wheels Fit 1990 Ford Ranger 4x4?
specific there is an electric motor to actuate the 4WD .in case you have become electric sign to the motor and the motor is powerful then you definately subject is interior the flow case.there's a shirt fork with a knob that rides up and down a ramp the motor turns . .the fork desires to get replaced.• Other Related Knowledge ofan electric motor— — — — — —what causes electric motor,armature noise?check the carbon brushes, if ok then check commutator if it is burnt. It could be open circuit on 1 winding, worn down till the mica insulation between segments is higher than segments or a simple bearing failure— — — — — —How to calculate the performance parameters of an hexacopter (UAV)? [closed]The way it's done in helicopters is by using power vs speed curves, comparing required power and available power. You would need to compute:Total power to remain airborne is a function of gross weight, air density, rotor state, aircraft state and velocity vectors.There is a way to measure delivered power of an electric motor, I assume that is what your copter uses: measure delivered amperage for the applied torque, measure voltage over the motor for rotational velocity, and multiply the two for applied electrical power.— — — — — —How do you build an ELECTRIC CAR (VEHICLE)?This is a beginning course? You may need to drop the course if you do not have the background. Most electric car prototypes are built on the chassis of an existing lightweight small car and then the weight of the batteries requires bucking up the suspension. Most run a higher voltage DC motor that is over-driven when needed to get acceleration so the batteries need to supply more voltage than the engine rating (often 36VDC) Batteries must be built to give up power quickly - like a lead acid starter battery. Because of the weight of the batteries, their cost, and limited power available, most of the emphasis has gone to hybrids of a gas engine running at its most efficient driving an alternator or a shared transmission with an electric motor that acts as a generator to collect braking power.— — — — — —What kind of oil is in an oil filled electric motor?that would be insulating oil. to keep the stator winding s cool this kind of oil will not break down and become conductive. ok— — — — — —Can a car that runs on gas be retrofitted as a hybrid electric?Yes, but generally speaking is not easy and not convenient. It is better to remove the engine and to install an electric motor. Instead, for a truck it is more easy to add an electric motor and related drive and batteries.— — — — — —Where/How do ndustries use Electric generators?An electric generator converts motion into electricity, the opposite of what an electric motor does. Renewable energy industries use electric generators to tap energy that does not run out and does not deplete our planet's resources: 1. Hydroelectricity: converting the flow of water into electricity. At a dam, water rapidly flows down through large passages due to gravity. Water turbines (basically "negative propellers" that turn when water flows through them) are located in the flow to turn a shaft, which is connected to a generator to produce electricity. 2. Wind power: converting wind into electricity. A similar approach using a wind turbine which turns when air flows through it. Again the rotating shaft is connected to a generator to produce electricity.— — — — — —how can you keep a gyroscope turning?Probably an electric motor mounted in the wheel and power passed in through a commutator— — — — — —Is it possible to convert a gas car to electric?Do you mean replace the engine with an electric motor. or converting to a hybrid. either way. the money spent would not be recovered in fuel saving costs. it would be cheaper to buy a new vehicle.— — — — — —Can a turbofan have a fan driven electrically so as to run at optimal speed?There are plans to run a turbofan-like engine with an electric motor rather than the gas generator used today. But the weight of electric engines does not promise an immediate advantage - only when the electricity is generated in a much more efficient way that what today's gas generators offer will the overall propulsion mass be lower. An example is a hydrogen-powered fuel cell somewhere in the fuselage. We had a similar discussion here and here
Test Drive: 2013 Ford C-max Energi
Even though it doesn't necessarily look it, we're led to believe that the 2013 Ford C-Max Energi is cool, because its name is intentionally misspelled with an "i" at the end.Lucky for Ford, it kind of is.The C-Max Energi is a plug-in hybrid, which is essentially a conventional hybrid with a larger battery pack installed that allows it to travel a fair distance on electricity alone. In this case, up to 21 miles per charge.After that it works like a regular hybrid, collecting otherwise wasted energy from the gasoline engine and brakes and recycling it through an electric motor to help deliver a combined fuel economy rating of 43 mpg.Factor in the average use cycle for an American driver and the EPA predicts that you'll typically travel 100 miles before burning a gallon of gasoline. Unless, of course, you take a lot of long trips with no recharges along the way, then break out the calculator and have at it.The C-Max Energi is powered by both a 141 hp 2.0-liter four cylinder and a 118 hp electric motor, which put out a combined 188 hp. More fuzzy math, I know, but that's how these things work.The electric motor draws its energy with a "y" from a 7.6 kilowatt-hour battery that can be recharged in two and a half hours with a 240-volt charger, or about seven hours on a standard outlet. It takes up a good portion of the cargo bay floor, like having a couple of IKEA flat packs permanently installed there.The neat trick is that you get to control what's propelling the car and when, at least to some extent.Three drive modes are available: Auto EV, EV Now and EV Later. The first leaves things up to the car, which switches between pure electric and hybrid drive as it deems fit. The second locks it in EV mode and runs off the power stored in the battery pack until it is depleted, while the third does the opposite, turning off the main battery and engaging hybrid drive.Why not just use the battery first all the time?Well, as the specs above indicate, when it's in EV mode the C-Max Energi has significantly less power on tap than it does in hybrid mode, so if you're in a hurry it might leave you wanting.That's not to say it's the snail it kind of resembles. If you're foot rarely meets the floor, you'll be quite satisfied with the EV performance. It's pretty lively out of the blocks, and can handle highway duties just fine up to its limited, battery-powered top speed of 85 mph, all in an almost disappointing silence. No futuristic flux capacitor sounds added here.The car is well aware of its lack of potency, and if it senses you and your four friends could use a boost on your way home from IKEA with a full load of actual flat packs, it politely offers to engage the gasoline engine, a gesture that you can accept or decline with a press of a button on the steering wheel.Keep in mind, too, that if your primary interest is buying this car is saving gasoline, the electric drive is more efficient at low speeds, so you'll likely go further on battery power around town. You may also want to keep some in reserve in case you get home late and need to sneak into the driveway.There is a noticeable difference in performance when it switches to hybrid mode, and since it's primarily relying on the gasoline engine the power delivery is less linear and much noisier. Anything more than half-throttle turns up an unpleasant moan, but keep a light foot on the pedal and the C-Max Energy is one of the most refined hybrids you'll find.Ford has gone out of its way to make this a very normal car. It's based on the same platform as the Focus and Escape, and its passenger compartment is identical to the latter. In fact, the C-Max is sold overseas in non-hybrid versions, but is only available here as the Energi and a standard Hybrid that gets 47 mpg, but has no long range EV capabilities.You sit high in the saddle and have a great view out of the large windows all around. The interior has a much flashier look than the body, and for $29,995 after a $3,750 federal tax credit comes equipped with a touch screen and voice activated infotainment system that doesn't overdo the plug-in theme. There are just a couple of configurable displays to the left of the speedometer that monitor what's going on under the hood.Overall the C-Max Energi is a pleasant car to drive. The stiff, low rolling resistance tires can be a little crunchy at times, but it has a generally good ride and very tidy handling.As far as its efficiency is concerned, when I picked up the car, it had a fully-charged battery and a gauge that read 21 miles of range. I made it16 miles in mixed city and highway driving in EV mode. The next time I charged it, that's what it told me to expect. I thought there might be something wrong with the charging station, but later learned that computer recalibrates its predictions based on your driving history, so there are no surprises along the way. Honesty -- still the best policy.There are a lot of plug-in hybrids coming on line right now, including a Ford Fusion Energi that uses the same powertrain as the C-Max. All of them work in very different ways, however, so comparing them is an apples and oranges affair.For example, the closest competitors to the C-Max Energi are the Chevrolet Volt and the Toyota Prius Plug-in. The Volt costs $32,495 when you subtract the big $7,500 tax credit it gets because it can go 38 miles per charge, but it only seats four and gets 37 mpg after it runs out of juice. On the other hand, Toyota Prius Plug-In costs $30,295 after a $2,500 tax credit due to its smaller battery and relatively paltry 11-mile electric range, but it gets 50 mpg in hybrid mode.Confusing, but not any more so than cross shopping similarly priced sedans and SUVs with their myriad engine options. The wrench in the works for the C-Max Energi is that the C-Max Hybrid costs just $25,995 and doesn't come with any junk in the trunk.Then again, unless you keep a barrel of gasoline in your garage you can't fill it up at home, so it's not nearly as cool, is it?(They probably would've spelled it Hibrid if it were.)----------2013 Ford C-Max EnergiBase Price: $29,995 (after $3,750 federal tax credit)Type: 5-passenger, 5-door hatchbackPowertrain: 2.0-liter 4-cylinder with 118 hp electric motorPower: 188 hpTransmission: CVT automaticMPG: 108 city/92 hwy
Businesses Are Turning to Shredding Companies to Help Them Destroy Incriminating Documents
Paper shredding can be time consuming. If you've been ordered by a sweating line manager to destroy a load of paperwork in a hurry, things can get a bit stressful - particularly if you're stuffing it into a Fellowes PowerShred P-20 (£17.49, plus VAT) which only handles five sheets at once and pushes them out at the rate of 2.5 metres per minute.This week, staff at Kids Company claimed that they were told to shred client files just before the beleaguered charity's collapse; it's unlikely that they'll have been using a feature-packed Rexel RLWSFM9 (£6,600, plus VAT, nine sheets at once, 4 metres per minute) but even if they had, it would still have felt too slow. Anyone with shredding experience will confirm that: a) it's laborious; and b) they wished someone else would do it. "You've generally got to have a member of staff standing over the machine," says Daniel Hawtin, managing director of The Shredding Alliance. "But we can shred in 15 minutes what would take someone five hours on an office shredder." That's a proud boast, and it's one that shred-weary businesses are becoming increasingly seduced by. "There are six companies in The Shredding Alliance," says Hawtin, "and we have a network of independent companies that work with us - but it's impossible to put a number on what the industry is worth. The problem is that it's not regulated in the UK. You could literally go off this afternoon and start your own shredding business." To provide peace of mind to customers, reputable organisations such as PHS, Shred-it and The Shredding Alliance boast of stringent security measures and their close adherence to the BS EN 15713 standard. "It's the dummies' guide to confidential shredding," says Hawtin, "covering everything from how the person collecting the paper is vetted to how it's transported, shredded and what happens to it after that." Of course, our need to annihilate all trace of confidential (or incriminating) pieces of paper goes back millennia, but it took a German toolmaker to turn it into a thriving business.Adolf Ehinger was quietly printing and distributing anti-Nazi material in the mid-1930s. But when a neighbour spotted some in his dustbin and threatened to report him, he took inspiration from the pasta machine in his kitchen and built a hand-cranked paper shredder, later adding an electric motor. When he first took it to trade shows, people laughed. But during wartime it caught on, and by the 1950s the company EBA Maschinenfabrik had become huge - particularly in America."Yes, this industry is massive in the USA," says Hawtin. "The regulations are a lot more stringent - six or seven decent-sized businesses out of 10 will use a shredding service. Over here it's more like two or three." Mounting corporate anxiety might well drive that number upwards; Shred-it's list of document security pitfalls is enough to provoke hyperventilation - failure to secure waste bins, unsecured printers, taking work home, leaving stuff on whiteboards..."You've got to be careful," says Hawtin. "In this office, no paper leaves without being shredded. Junk mail, everything. If you're not shredding and you're hoping for the best, you've got a whole host of problems on your hands." Weirdly, as business security concerns increase, the younger generation appears to be less likely to give a hoot; in one survey 34 per cent of "millennials" described data theft as a victimless crime. But as we move to being paper-free, shredding services are moving with the times. "We do media destruction too," says Hawtin.However, before you go into a shredding frenzy, be careful; any attempt to reassemble the "micro-cut confetti" produced by modern shredders will be very long, very tearful - and ultimately futile.
Electric Bikes for Sale at Best Buy - Cbs News
Are Americans ready for electric bicycles? Some celebrated entrepreneurs, including Lee Iaccoca and Malcolm Bricklin, have lost their shirts in the category, but Best Buy is convinced that the electrification of transportation now extends to two-wheelers. It has started an experiment to sell several forms of assisted pedaling (as well as Segways and the Brammo electric motorcycle) at 20 stores in California and Oregon. One of its ebikes in a lineup that includes the Baja Motorsports moped and Currie Ezip is the $2,699 Ultra Motor A2B, which I recently borrowed for some memorable test drives.Best Buy is serious about this, and recently invested $10 million in Brammo. Neither Ultra Motor nor Best Buy will comment on how many A2Bs the retailer has sold three months into the program, but Best Buy's Kelly Groehler says, "One of the things that's important for the future growth of [our company] is staying ahead of where technology is in people's lives." The Geek Squad has been trained in ebike maintenance. Paul Vlahos, vice president of sales at Ultra Motor, isn't sure how big the ebike market is, citing competing estimates of from 20,000 to 200,000 sold annually. The line between ebikes and electric scooters is somewhat blurry, especially with the not very bike-like A2B. "Unlike more mature categories, there is not very good sales data on ebikes," said Vlahos. "Our distribution points continue to increase daily as more dealers and retailers see new trends, and as the category gains awareness and acceptance among U.S. consumers." Ultra Motor has 250 dealers in the U.S.--spread among traditional bike stores, green specialty retailers and motorsports locations."We have some strong independent dealers out there," said Vlahos. "We're unsure how the Best Buy relationship will ultimately work out, but we're excited about it. Will they expand into other stores? We hope so, but we're unable to speak to their plans for the category." Trending News Google Cloud Outage Missing Connecticut Mom Virginia Beach Shooting Protester Interrupts Harris The private Ultra launched the A2B in warm-weather states California, Arizona and Florida in September of last year. It's now available in bike-friendly locations such as Seattle, Portland (OR). San Francisco and New York. The lithium-ion batteries are guaranteed for a year, and the motor for two years. The high price might be a deterrent for some customers, but the beauty of the A2B and its competitors is that no motorcycle license is needed--in most states, this scooter-like device is regulated as if it were a bicycle.A very sleek design with the batteries enclosed in the frame and the electric motor in the rear hub, the A2B resembles a small scooter. It's somewhat heavy at 72 pounds, which makes unassisted pedaling uphill somewhat of a chore. But twist the throttle and it takes off with alacrity, offering 20 miles of cruising range. The With wide tires, the bike is extremely stable and easy to ride. Recharging is simple, and takes three and a half hours. A small box plugs into the wall and into a three-pin port on the bike.Vlahos says Ultra Motors sells "thousands" of A2Bs annually, but he declined to be more exact. "We're evaluating expansion into the scooter category," he said. That makes sense, because the A2B is most of the way there already. And we hear Best Buy is selling what we might call "escooters."
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