One Coil Is Always Active on My Stepper Motor(ULN2003)

I have not looked through all the code so this is still a guess.If there is a call to cleanup() in the code during exit that will switch the GPIO you use back to INPUT mode.You are using GPIO 3 and 4. When set as INPUTS they will both be high. GPIO 3 will be high because it has an external 1k8 pull-up to 3V3. GPIO 4 will be high as it defaults to having a weak internal pull-up to 3V3.I suggest you substitute other GPIOs for 3 and 4. Any spare GPIO higher than number 7 should be fine

1. Stepper motor won't turn, just vibrates

9V batteries are very weak. When I was a kid, they were sometimes called transistor batteries, since that is all they were good for, powering low-power transistor radios.Is the enable_n pin low by default? You may need to drive it low.Use full step mode until you get it to work. Try longer delays. If you want to run the motor fast, you need to accelerate gradually. There are drivers to help you for some MCUs

2. Determine if motor is "stepper motor” or "DC motor”

The motor is a 3-phase, brushless DC motor. It could also be controlled as a permanent-magnet DC motor. The original board likely had some means for detecting the rotor position. I believe the least complicated control schemes depend of detecting the rotor position. The board switches the winding in a sequence that is an approximation of an AC waveform, but the process is called "electronic commutation." It might be possible to design a new board to replace the one that has been damaged, but that would be a rather challenging project. However it would be even more challenging to design a controller to work without sensing rotor position.If the housing is sufficiently intact to hold the bearings in proper alignment, the motor could be used as an AC generator. It would generate a three phase voltages . The windings would need to be connected together in either a wye or delta configuration.Re ConnectionsIf the added connection table means that there is a direct connection that you can see or zero ohms between 1-2, 3-4 & 5-6 and somewhat more than zero ohms but still a low resistance between 2-3,4-5 & 6-1 the windings have a delta connection

3. Strange comportment of stepper motor while connected to internet

Pin 11 is used for SPI to communicate with the Ethernet Shield. And pin 10 is used for the ChipSelect. So using the ethernet shield will toggle those pins, making the motor shake around.Try using pins 6, 7, 8, and 9 instead.

4. Bipolar stepper motor (Alfa Romeo 156 speedo) w/ L293D

Well, you might say I did not solved the problem of driving these gauges with an Arduino, but I have solved the problem. I have just ordered a couple X27.168 5V stepper motors ($2/pc) and replaced these 'noone-realy-knows-how-to-drive-them' motors. They fit perfectly and it's really easy to interface them with the stepper library.

5. Stepper motor is only moving one step at a time with an IR sensor

As chrisl said, you need to call run repeatedly.I tried to rewrite the code you've given, though I am not entirely sure what it is you try to achieve

6. Which stepper motor and controller would be best suited for lifting 20kg?

It depends on how quickly you need to lift the mass, the maximum acceleration rate for raising the mass AND for all other moving parts (pulleys, flywheels, etc.), the distance to be lifted, the maximum permitted temperature rise in the stepper, the total force required to overcome all frictional forces, the maximum electrical power (including volts and amperes) available, and the amount of space available.But you also need to know how precise the movements need to be, which will be determined both by the available gearing as well as by the stepper itself. Which stepper motor and controller would be best suited for lifting 20kg?

7. Can a stepper motor be controlled directly from an Arduino?

Generally, stepper motors cannot be controlled by an Arduino pin. They have a current draw of over the 20mA any single pin can supply.Kickback is also a problem. Because the motors have moving magnetic parts inside, they will continue to generate electricity after power has been cut. this will almost certainly cause enough negative voltage that is enough to fry your Arduino.A solution is to use a motor driver chip or shield. This one is a good example. These have transistor based chips that can drive enough current to power a motor, and diodes to mitigate the kickback from the motors.

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A Powerful Pull/rotate Device That Provides a Certain (controllable) Force?
If I understand your question correctly, it seems to me that you are looking for a DC torque motor (brushed or brushless) with a suitable sensor attached to the load or to the output shaft. The sensor measures whatever it is what you want to control, you need a processor to implement the control system algorithms, and a power amplifier to deliver electrical power to the motorI don't know how to call the device I'm looking for (or need to create), maybe you can help me with terminology too so I can at least search..I want something that either rotates or pulls with a certain (controllable) force, i.e. not like a servo/stepper motor which control position, but on the contrary, it should be able to "catch up" to the moving load fast or stay still if the load is too heavy, but provide a steady pull of a certain force. Do these things exist and if so, what are they called? Do you know of any such thing that does it out of the box?Btw I'm looking for something that pulls in the range of 100-200 lb, so the constant tension things from sewing machines won't work :)·OTHER ANSWER:I don't know how to call the device I'm looking for (or need to create), maybe you can help me with terminology too so I can at least search..I want something that either rotates or pulls with a certain (controllable) force, i.e. not like a servo/stepper motor which control position, but on the contrary, it should be able to "catch up" to the moving load fast or stay still if the load is too heavy, but provide a steady pull of a certain force. Do these things exist and if so, what are they called? Do you know of any such thing that does it out of the box?Btw I'm looking for something that pulls in the range of 100-200 lb, so the constant tension things from sewing machines won't work :)
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