Servo Steering Robot Car for Arduino

This car is based on the arduino platform design, the core is the Atmega - 328 p, which can realize the front wheel steering, rear wheel drive and other functions.If you just play alone, only need to use the wireless module;If you want to implement other functions, you may need to add other sensors or hardware.When you want to have a controlled by the steering gear to car,You need the following parts:PM - R3 module integrated I/O expansion and motor driveFirst we install the drive part, drive motor is JGA25-370, through a gear reduction drive axle and wheel forward retreat, the motor shaft gear is big, because after the drive shaft and support distance is small, can't install big gear, but overall still slow.Rear wheel bearings with flange bearings, to prevent the gear sliding down when running, you can also reduce power consumption.Before turning part adopts the design of the RC, also with most of the accessories, such as the wheel parts;In order to keep the wheels of flexible, both inside and outside the bearing with installation.MG996R metal as power steering, the steering gear with two L shaped bracket should be fixed to the chassis,Servo motor connecting rod when installation, please ensure the steering Angle are already owned by (1.5 ms), the switch to the scope of the convenient adjustment and in the late.Will be assembled to part and servo motor is fixed to the turf,Can't tighten the screw fixed to a cup, it will lead to can't turn, is likely to burn out the servo motor and single chip microcomputer;Using the connecting rod connects two front wheels, and connected to the servo motor on the rudder Angle;Servo motor is fixed with the M3 * 8 mm screw and nut, fixed with M2.5 * 8 mm screw to cup, copper column side is 2 M3 * 8 mm screw.Motor driven extension board can be used directly, and the mainboard without other wiring,just need to PS2 receiver and servo motor upon receiving the I/O port expansion board, the power input port in the VCC & GND expansion board, motor output in A and A -,another motor output in B and B-.So, we can control the two dc motors, here we only need one interface.Servo Pin : I/O 4PS2 did a transfer board, convenient wiring, reverse connect protection, recommend the following connection herePS2 Pin : Power input VIN & GND, 3-9 v voltage range.Through the modification of the program to achieve the robot's walking, motor control forward and back, servo control direction; program contains PS2 control, Bluetooth control and follow-line.The program should be changed to the latest version to match the new PM-R3.Old code see PS2_old

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13 Kinds of Fault Analysis and Maintenance Knowledge of Common Servo Motor
1、 What is the work to be done before starting the servo motor1) Measure the insulation resistance (not less than 0.5m for low voltage motor). 2) Measure the power supply voltage and check whether the motor wiring is correct and whether the power supply voltage meets the requirements. 3) Check whether the starting equipment is in good condition. 4) Check whether the fuse is suitable. 5) Check whether the motor grounding and zero connection are good. 6) Check the transmission for defects. 7) Check whether the motor environment is suitable and remove inflammables and other sundries.2、 What are the causes of servo motor bearing overheatingMotor itself: 1) the inner and outer rings of bearing are too tight. 2) There are problems in the geometric tolerance of parts, such as poor coaxiality of parts such as base, end cover and shaft. 3) Improper selection of bearings. 4) Poor bearing lubrication or unclean bearing cleaning, and sundries in the grease. 5) Shaft current.Use: 1) improper installation of the unit, such as the coaxiality of the motor shaft and the driven device meet the requirements. 2) The pulley is pulled too tight. 3) The bearing is poorly maintained, the lubricating grease is insufficient or exceeds the service life, and it becomes dry and deteriorated.3、 What is the reason for the imbalance of three-phase current of servo motor1) Three phase voltage imbalance. 2) Poor welding or poor contact of a phase branch in the motor. 3) Motor winding resistance inter turn short circuit or inter phase short circuit to ground. 4) Wrong wiring.4、 How to control the speed of servo motorThe servo motor is a typical closed-loop feedback system. The reduction gear set is driven by the motor, and its terminal (output end) drives a linear proportional potentiometer for position detection. The potentiometer converts the angle coordinate into a proportional voltage and feeds it back to the control circuit board, which compares it with the input control pulse signal to generate a correction pulse, And drive the motor to rotate forward or reverse, so that the output position of the gear set is consistent with the expected value, and the correction pulse tends to 0, so as to achieve the purpose of accurate positioning and constant speed of the servo motor.5、 Observe whether there is spark between the carbon brush and the commutator and the degree of spark when the motor is running, and repair it1. There are only 2 4 very small sparks. At this time, if the surface of the commutator is flat, it does not need to be repaired in most cases; 2. Yes, there is no spark. There is no need to repair; 3. If there are more than 4 small sparks and 1 3 large sparks, it is not necessary to disassemble the armature, but only need to grind the carbon brush commutator with sandpaper; 4. If there are more than 4 large sparks, the commutator needs to be ground with sandpaper, and the carbon brush and armature must be removed. Replace the carbon brush and grind the carbon brush.6、 Repair of commutator1. The commutator surface is obviously uneven (tactile by hand) or sparks when the motor is running, as in the fourth case. At this time, remove the armature and process the converter with a precision machine tool;2. It is basically flat, with only minimal scars or sparks. In the second case, port 1 is ground manually with water sandpaper without removing the armature. The grinding sequence is as follows: first, process a wooden tool according to the arc of the outer circle of the commutator, cut several kinds of water sandpaper of different thickness into long strips as wide as the commutator, remove the carbon brush (please make marks on the handle and groove of the removed carbon brush to ensure that the left and right will not be changed wrong during installation), and paste the commutator with a wooden tool wrapped with sandpaper, Press the rotation direction of the motor with the other hand and gently rotate the shaft commutator for grinding. The order of thickness of sandpaper used for servo motor maintenance is from coarse to fine. When one piece of sandpaper is too blind to use, change another finer sandpaper until the finest water sandpaper (or metallographic sandpaper) is used up.7、 How to align the encoder phase of servo motor with the zero point of rotor pole phase1. Phase alignment method of incremental encoder. The alignment method between the phase of UVW electronic commutation signal of incremental encoder with commutation signal and the phase of rotor magnetic pole, or electrical angle phase, is as follows:1) Apply a DC power supply to the UV winding of the motor with DC less than the rated current, u in and V out, and orient the motor shaft to a balanced position; 2) Observe the U-phase signal and z-signal of the encoder with an oscilloscope; 3) Adjust the relative position of encoder shaft and motor shaft; 4) While adjusting, observe the U-phase signal jump edge and z-signal of the encoder until the z-signal is stable at the high level (the normal state of the z-signal is low level by default), and lock the relative position relationship between the encoder and the motor; 5) Twist the motor shaft back and forth. After letting go, if the Z signal can be stable at the high level every time the motor shaft freely returns to the balance position, the alignment is effective.2. Phase alignment of absolute encoderThe phase alignment of absolute encoder has little difference between single turn and multi turn. In fact, it is to align the detection phase of encoder and the phase of motor electrical angle within one turn. At present, a very practical method is to use the EEPROM inside the encoder to store the measured phase after the encoder is randomly installed on the motor shaft. The specific methods are as follows:1) Install the encoder on the motor randomly, that is, consolidate the encoder rotating shaft and motor shaft, as well as the encoder housing and motor housing; 2) Apply a DC power supply to the UV winding of the motor with DC less than the rated current, u in and V out, and orient the motor shaft to a balanced position; 3) The single turn position value of the absolute encoder is read by the servo driver and stored in the EEPROM which records the initial phase of the motor electrical angle inside the encoder; 4) The alignment process ends.8、 Servo motor maintenance runoutMovement occurs during feeding, and the speed measurement signal is unstable, such as cracks in the encoder; Poor contact of wiring terminals, such as loose screws; When the movement occurs at the moment of commutation from positive direction movement to reverse direction movement, it is generally caused by the reverse clearance of feed transmission chain or excessive servo drive gain.9、 Servo motor maintenance creeping phenomenonMost of them occur in the starting acceleration section or low-speed feed, which is generally caused by poor lubrication state of the feed transmission chain, low gain of the servo system and excessive external load. In particular, it should be noted that the coupling used for the connection between the servo motor and the ball screw causes the rotation of the ball screw and the servo motor to be out of sync due to loose connection or defects of the coupling itself, such as cracks, so that the feed movement is fast and slow.10、 Servo motor maintenance vibrationWhen the machine tool is running at high speed, vibration may occur, and an overcurrent alarm will be generated. The vibration problem of machine tool generally belongs to the problem of speed, so we should look for the problem of speed loop.11、 Servo motor maintenance torque reductionWhen the servo motor runs from the rated locked rotor torque to high speed, it is found that the torque will suddenly decrease, which is caused by the heat dissipation damage of the motor winding and the heating of the mechanical part. At high speed, the temperature rise of the motor becomes larger. Therefore, the load of the motor must be checked before using the servo motor correctly.12、 Servo motor maintenance position errorWhen the servo axis moves beyond the position tolerance range (kndsd100 factory standard setting pa17:400, position out of tolerance detection range), the servo driver will give an "4" position out of tolerance alarm. The main reasons are: the tolerance range set by the system is small; Improper gain setting of servo system; The position detection device is polluted; The cumulative error of feed transmission chain is too large.13、 Servo motor does not rotate during maintenanceIn addition to connecting pulse direction signal, there is also enabling control signal from NC system to servo driver, which is generally DC 24V relay coil voltage. If the servo motor does not rotate, the common diagnostic methods are: check whether the NC system has pulse signal output; Check whether the enable signal is on; Observe whether the input / output status of the system meets the starting conditions of the feed shaft through the LCD screen; Confirm that the brake has been turned on for the servo motor with electromagnetic brake; The driver is faulty; Servo motor is faulty; Failure of coupling between servo motor and ball screw or key disconnection, etc.fqj
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