What Were the Causes for the Protestant Reformation

The Reformation was started by a priest, Martin Luther, in Germany. His basic principle was an appeal to conscience, personally enlightened by the Spirit, against what he called the additions of the Catholic Church. He taught that he conscience is bound up with the word of God in the Scriptures. Therefore, instead of popes and councils, Scripture alone (sola Scriptura) became the source of religious knowledge.

Now the Catholic Church at the time was in need of reform. This reform was not about doctrines (which cannot be changed) but about pastoral practices on the one hand and serious abuses that had crept in (such as selling of indulgences, condemned by the Church but alas led by some clerics or Churchmen accumulating riches).

The reform needed (the so called Counter Reformation) was fostered by the Council of Trent (1545-1563) which both contrasted the teachings of Luther in affirming and precising the deposit of faith that the Church always held and implemented serious changes (for example the creation of seminaries) to fight the abuses.

Overall could have been part of a reform of the Church in challenging the abuses . However in part due to his philosophical mindset (Nominalism) and his unhealthy ego, he went beyond and rebelled. Could the Church at the time have been more receptive and proactive to stop the abuses? Absolutely.

In any case Luther started a movement that went well beyond everything he could have imagined and he was horrified while alive of the division and the multiplication of contradicting doctrines that sprung from his theology. What would he say today?

Thanks for the A2A

• Other Questions

What military tactics were effective against Mongolian horse archers?

The most effective tactic used by European forces required discipline and combined arms. Horse archers from the Scythians, Parthians and Seljuk Turks to the Mongols all used their mobility and bows to kill their opponents from a distance. Christian armies were defeated because they allowed their heavy cavalry (knights) to pursue enemy cavalry when the Mongols,etc.

, feigned retreat. The Mongols then would turn about and attack the knights when European mounts became winded and exhausted. Once the Mongols separated the heavy cavalry from their infantry, the slaughter began. A very successful tactic was to keep the heavy cavalry behind the intermingled archers and infantry when the Mongols/Parthians/Seljuk Turks attacked. The Knights would charge out to drive them away and then return behind the infantry/archer formation for safety. During the 3rd Crusade in 1191, King Richard of England was moving his coalition of national contingents south along the coastal shoreline from Acre to Jaffa and became known as the Battle of Arsuf. The Saracens under Saladin were harassing the marching Christians with mounted attacks and flights of arrows as they moved south. Richard the Lionheart kept his mounted Sergeant-at-Arms, Turcopoles and knights behind his marching infantry and crossbowmen and refused to allow them to sally forth in response to the Saracen charges. Even though the European knights lost many trained chargers, the march continued with the crossbowmen taking a toll on the attacking Saracens. The Christian rear guard all marched backwards. The marching infantry had so many Saracen arrows sticking out of their padded gambesons that many resembled porcupines. The European knights finally did respond and crushed the lighter Saracen cavalry when they were finally released to charge. But Richard succeeded because he kept control of his knights and relied on his crossbowmen and infantry to act as a mobile barrier. Horse archers could be defeated by Europeans as long as they acted logically and controlled their emotions. I hope that helps


What human knowledge is not available on the Internet?

Although there is hardly anything that isnt available on the internet or through the internet. but still, technology cannot rule over the human mind.Understanding:- we can read about manners, etiquettes and certain behaviours from internet sources, but if we wont adopt in daily life, all these things will soon get forgotten by us. technology can guide us to become humane but it can never teach us how to add values for the upliftment of humanity.Emotions:- there are thousands of articles available on the internet regarding different emotions but if we have no real person around us to express feelings, emotions, desires and dark secrets then what is the use of internet, for emotional feeling we need physical and mental support which technology can never provide.Friendship:- nowadays most friendship exists on the internet only, the reason can be different distances, locations, family, career and so on, even that doesnt mean online friendships dont succeed, but a relationship needs to be felt, to be seen, to analyse realistically, which internet still lacks in providing all these.

Real-World experience:- the entire world exists on the internet, you can travel to different countries within a second (virtually), you can talk, meet and even see them live. but the question is, what does it lack? The real world experience, even if you have travelled to a few places only but the satisfaction, the happiness you will get is immense, my virtual tour is nothing compared to your real-world experience.There are still many things that internet lacks, but these are most common things for which we look there, Internet is a great invention but there is a real, humane and a kind world outside; we only need to explore different possibilities.


How important was Allied Air Power in the defeat of Germany?

In February of 1944, a less well known air campaign is credited by many WWII historians as the most decisive air battle of the ETO and one which altered the course of the war in Europe.Known as Big Week, it was conducted during Feb 20-25. The US 8th Air Force and RAF Bomber command relentlessly attacked German airfields, aircraft factories, and in general anything directly Luftwaffe related....


e. no synthetic oil facilities, railroads, ball bearing factories.....just German aircraft. The RAF attacked at night, the USAAF during the day. The American bombers essentially acted as 'bait', luring German fighters into the skies to attack formations. However, the bombers were escorted by heavy concentrations of the superior P-51 Mustangs which pretty much decimated much of the Luftwaffe's defensive air capability.Unbeknownst to the crews and fighter pilots of Big Week, this strategic air campaign mission was to render the Luftwaffe impotent and achieve air superiority for the upcoming invasion, scheduled at that time for May 1944. Big Week was an unqualified success. During D-Day and the ensuing Normandy campaign, the Luftwaffe was conspicuous by it's absence. Had the Luftwaffe not been neutralized, it's likely that D-Day would have been a failure.My late father was a radio/gunner on a B-17 with the 305th BG and flew on three missions during Big Week. By his accounts, and numerous other stories I've read, the skies over the English Channel and France were blackened with the sheer number of Allied aircraft blocking out the sun en route to Germany. My father would tell of bombers returning to base from early morning missions and encountering aircraft still taking off from England. It was a steady stream of non-stop offensive aircraft 24/7. It must have been an awesome sight


Why is it that Japan seems technologically advanced compared to the USA?

I imagine it may seem more technologically superior to a visitor who stays entirely within Tokyo or other major city and has basically never ventured outside of it. I suppose even in the medium and smaller cities you would see those high speed rails that can deliver you to most towns in the nation provided you know the basic route and it often seems you are never more than 50 meters from a vending machine.What is going on here is a big investment in infrastructure. Japan hasn't had to pay for a military since the 1940s, something that eats up the majority of the U.S. budget. Moreover, Japanese live far more compact for the most part than people in the U.S. This means that the infrastructure needs to be built over a much smaller area and you have far more people contributing to build it.

The Japanese are also generally far less tolerant of the kind of corruption, cronyism and openly acting against the public interest that people in the U.S. have just come to accept as an inevitable and unavoidable part of what a politician is.Even though a lot of the high tech services in Japan are privately created and held, the public infrastructure and public support systems for these things coming into being allows them to do so in ways that the U.

S. wouldn't allow.

Now, mind you that the idea that Japan is actually more high tech is an illusion. It just seems that way. If the U.S. just did the most basic thing... like had its workers work on things that actually improved the lives of the people in the nation rather than having them build billion dollar aircraft that will never fly and deserts full of tanks to just rot out in the open.... Well, the U.S. could have those things Japan has and it would vastly improve economically as a result.


Which are collectively better musicians, Led Zeppelin or Rush?

Sigh another better question. So subjective and you will get a different answer from everyone. In as much as I like to avoid the whos better pissing contests, I feel obligated to add my opinion to the mix. (After all, isnt that what this app is for? Lol).

I will start by saying that I prefer Rush to Zep. The main reason why is their level of technical proficiency in their instruments. Thats really a tough area to judge, as everyone has a different style. Thats what makes them an individual. For example, Peart and Bonzo. Both are incredible drummers. And both are SO different in their approach to a song. Which style appeals to you? Thats likely the guy you admire more.My preference, or opinion that Rush is collectively better stems from their live performances. Now, Ive not seen Led Zep live, but I have seen Rush live (numerous times). Simply take live recordings. Im sorry to say this, but Page was sloppy. And Plant seemed to ad-lib a lot. While the ad-libbing is cool, you couple that with Pages sloppiness and it becomes cringe-worthy for me. Led Zeps saving grace was with Jones and Bonham. Those two stayed locked in impeccably. Quite a feat considering the other two were all over the place.Compare that to Rushs live show. They all are on the money. One could try to argue that they used a ton of overdubs on live recordings, and while they may have, I have been to many Rush concerts and never witnessed an obvious flub. Considering the complicated individual parts, thats saying something.With all that said, its of my OPINION that Rush gets the nod for being collectively better musicians

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